IJECT 7 .2 (April-June 2016)

 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (IJECT)-Vol 7.2 (April-June 2016)


International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology Vol 7.2 (April-June 2016)
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
01 A Novel Technique to Design UWB Patch Antenna for Multi-Band Operation at Multi-Resonance Frequencies by Using DGS/DMS
Sunita, P.K.Singhal, Pramod Kumar

Abstract
In this research a multi-band notch antenna radiationg at different frequencies is presented. The result is obtained by etching two symmetrical slots Defected Microstrip Structure (DMS) at patch to preturb current and Defected Ground Structure (DGS) at ground under feed line to create stop band. The propsed antenna is radiated
at multiband band of frequencies with variable bandwidth. First band is from 2.7 GHz -3.0 GHz, second band from 4.26 GHz to 7.1 GHz and third wideband ranging from 7.8 GHz to 29.3 GHz. The proposed antenna shows various band operations as highly selective in lower band and highly sensitive in higher band.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-395
02 New Approach for Network Modulation in Cooperative Communication
Praveen Kumar Singh, Santosh Sharma, Jyoti bhadouria

Abstract
Cooperative communication is a communication, where users cooperate with each other in wireless network. Improving the performance of a wireless network transmission has always been an important research topic in both in industry and academia. In this paper, we will propose a new approach to improve wireless network performance by using network modulation (NM). Network modulation is a software bit remapping technique. In this paper we are proposing new Network Modulation schemes (NM_schemes) to improve the throughput system sothat we can be direct benefit from the enhanced wireless channel reliability through employing cooperative transmissions at the physical layer. Designing of NM scheme depends on the SNR and BER of wireless channel. In this paper, we have proposed five NM constellations which are using the quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) technique. And also presented throughput for proposed NM scheme transmission for Equal power allocation and for Optimal power allocation.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-396
03 Comparison of PMU Placement Techniques For Complete Observability of Network Using State Estimation
Kanika Jain, Sumeet Shehrawat

Abstract
Theuse of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) enhances the state estimation in terms of accuracy and complete network observability. For the placement of PMUs in the network, algorithm based on integer programming is used.The cost of installation is more using only PMUs for complete observability; in order to make the system economical and yet observable PMU along with injection measurement in conventional state estimation program will be discussed in this paper.Case studies carried out on different sized test systems are presented and the test results of different PMU placement techniques are compared on the basis of economy, accuracy and observability.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-397
04 An Improved Spectrum Sensing Technique using Matched Filter Detection with a NP Observer
Kattaswamy Mergu, Bekalu Alebachew Abreham Teshome Metaferia

Abstract
The growing demand of wireless applications has put a lot of constraints on the usage of available radio spectrum which is a limited and precious resource. Some frequency bands in the spectrum are largely unoccupied most of the time and some other frequency bands are partially occupied. This underutilization of radio spectrum is minimized by using the Cognitive radio[1]. An important requirement of the Cognitive Radio is to sense the spectrum holes. The spectrum sensing function enables the CR to adapt its environment by detecting the primary users that are receiving data within the communication range of CR user. We can find various spectrum sensing techniques [1-2] which, in general could be classified as energy based sensing, matched filter-based sensing, cyclostationary feature-based sensing and so on. Different techniques serve different purpose based on their advantages and disadvantages. The matched filter-based detect gives better detection compared with the other methods; however, it requires complete signal information. In this paper, we proposed a new approach of matched filterbased spectrum sensing with a Neyman-Pearson observer and we observed that, this approach gives better probability detection and threshold values than the matched filter-based spectrum sensing with a Log-Likelihood Ratio test.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-398
05 Comparative Analysis of Pulsed Latch and Flip-Flop based Shift Registers for High-Performance and Low-Power Systems
P. Rajesh, D. Suresh Chandra, L. Sai Kumar, G. Kaushik

Abstract
An optimized area-efficient shift register is proposed using pulsed latches. The area and power consumption are reduced by replacing flip-flops with pulsed latches. This method solves the timing problem between pulsed latches through the use of multiple nonoverlap delayed pulsed clock signals instead of the conventional single pulsed clock signal. The shift register uses a small number of the pulsed clock signals by grouping the latches to several sub
shifter registers and using additional temporary storage latches. A 64-bit shift register using pulsed latches was implemented by using an 180nm CMOS process with VDD = 1.8V at the clock frequency of 100MHz.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-399
06 Efficient Interleaver Design for MIMO-OFDM based Communication System on FPGA
Girish Kumar N G, Draveena R Mote, Manjushree S, Srilakshmi S, Shibani D

Abstract
In this paper, we exhibit a memory-proficient and speedier Interleaver usage method for MIMO-OFDM communication systems on FPGA. The IEEE 802.16 standard is utilized as a source of perspective for conducting execution and examination. A strategy for the Interleaver design on FPGA and its memory use results are exhibited. Our design uses the base required onchip memory for the Interleaver execution. Utilizing the proposed Interleaver design strategy, the information rates for MIMOOFDM based communication systems are multiplied for 2×2 MIMO systems without utilizing the transmit diversity.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-400
07 Design and Implementation of Multiple – Master Multiple-Slave AMBA AHB Protocol Block with and Without Split/Retry Transfer for Advanced Microcontroller in Verilog/VHDL
Kajol Singh, Shefali Verma, Shobha Sharma

Abstract
The on-chip interconnection system known as Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA) is a well established open specification for the proper management of functional blockscomprising system-on-chips (SOCs). In this subject paper, the design and implementation details of AMBA advanced high bus (AHB) with split/ retry transfer and without splitting are shown. The AHB design contains basic blocks such as master and slave and the working of these blocks are based on arbitration scheme. Multiplexer and Decoders are used to select the appropriate signals between masters and slaves that are involved in the transfer. The SPLIT and RETRY responses provide a mechanism for slaves to release the bus when they are unable to supply data for a transfer immediately. Both mechanisms allow the transfer to finish on the bus and therefore allow a higher-priority master to get access to the bus. The designing of AMBA (AHB) is done on QUESTASIM tool by verilog language.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-401
08 DSP Kit Implementation of Encoder Decoder Circuit of Reed Solomon
Anjana Sharma, Amarjeet Kaur, Nitasha Singla

Abstract
High Bit Error Rate (BER) of the communication system requires various coding methods for transferring the data. Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are very efficient for correction of burst errors in communication system. This paper describes a Reed Solomon encoder decoder implementation on the TMS320C6713 DSP. The C6713 DSK is a low-cost standalone development platform that enables users to evaluate and develop applications and provide extremely high levels of performance. Results for the encoder as well as decoder are presented.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-402
09 Iris Recognition Using Canny Edge Detection and Freeman Chain Code Algorithm
Nitasha Singla, Amarjeet Kaur, Anjana Sharma

Abstract
Circle detection is very important for many applications. Planets, movement of planets, even cars, scooters, buses we would not be able to drive because wheels are circle when we play sports, we use balls- which are spheres, or three dimensional representations of circles. So circle plays very important role in our life. In this paper, we detect centre of iris using canny edge detection and
Freeman chain code algorithm.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-403
10 Review Paper on Modified Rectangular Shaped Microstrip Patch Antennas
Deepak Verma, Dheeraj Bhardwaj, Kanika Joshi, Komal Sharma

Abstract
This paper presents review work on rectangular shaped microstrip patch antennas. In this paper four rectangular microstrip antennas have been studied and analyzed. We start our work with a reference rectangular patch which has six parallel slits of 5mmx37mm, and then we proceed with variation in length and width of those slits. We examine our results on two configurations, single layer and multilayer. With single layer rectangular microstrip patch antennas we obtained dual band broadband antenna which has a maximum bandwidth of 15.13% with a gain of 4.7dBi. Then we shifted our work on multilayer configuration. With multilayer configuration we obtained a multi frequency dual band broadband antenna (in comparison to single layer configuration) which have four resonant frequencies and have maximum bandwidths of 27.08% with a gain of 5.69dBi. All four antennas are simulated in IE3D simulation software, and all Antennas are designed on FR4 substrate.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-404
11 Q-Format Data Representation and Its Arithmetic
Md. Zakir Hussain, Kazi Nikhat Parvin

Abstract
In the early days of computing, there were common misconceptions about computers. One misconception was that the computer was only a giant adding machine performing arithmetic operations. Computers could do much more than that, even in the early days. The other common misconception, in contradiction to the first, was that the computer could do “anything.” We now know that there are indeed classes of problems that even the most powerful imaginable computer finds intractable with the von Neumann model. The correct perception, of course, is somewhere between the two. We might think of the decimal representation of information as the most natural when we know it the best, but the use of on-off codes to represent information predated the computer by many years, in the form of Morse code. This section introduces several of the simplest and most important encodings: the encoding of signed and unsigned fixed point numbers, real numbers (referred to as floating point numbers in computer jargon), and the printing characters. We shall see that in all cases there are multiple ways of encoding a given kind of data, some useful in one context, some in another.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-405
12 Bandwidth Optimization in Ethernet Passive Optical Network
Pankhuri Dogra, Mandeep Kaur

Abstract
When the data is transferred over the network, packet delivery is one of basic requirement of the network but there are many major causes that can result packet loss over the network. Due to this there is requirement of some methodology that can reduce the packet loss. Advancement of PON technology with proper utilization of bandwidth and reduction of delay can overcome this problem. In this paper we proposed a model which can increase bandwidth upto 30%.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-406
13 Review of PIFA
Neha Loharia, Shashi B. Rana

Abstract
The up gradation in technology of wireless communication leads to the expanding demands of small antennas. Due to the excellent performance, low profile, good radiation characteristics of PIFA ,it is widely used in handheld devices. In this paper we have discussed about PIFA , some methods to improve its bandwidth, size reduction techniques of PIFA and applications of PIFA

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-407
14 Performance Analysis of DWT-SVD-AES Watermarking
Anjana Gupta, Mukesh Pathela

Abstract
In this paper, the effects of various error rectification codes on the robustness of (DWT) Discrete Wavelet Transform, (SVD) Singular Value Decomposition based hybrid watermarking scheme and AES encryption is investigated. The performance of the proposed system is calculated in terms of number of signal processing attacks by changing the strength of watermarking and covers image resources. The experimental results signify that this proposed system provides better robustness without impress the quality of watermarked image. This proposed system combines the advantages and removes the drawback of the two transform techniques. It demands serious protection of user’s privacy for all applications. Therefore image encryption and decryption techniques are usually used to avoid intrusion attack. It is found that the hybrid code achieves better outcome in terms of robustness.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-408
15 Improved ECG QRS Detection Using Combined MaMeMi Filter and First Order Derivative Filter
Monika Bhatia, Pawandeep Kaur

Abstract
ECG is an electronic device used for analysing heart’s electrical activity. QRS complex forms the most distinctive wave of ECG signals. It is used to determine heart rate, diagnose cardiac diseases and study various morphological features of ECG signals. But due to low amplitude of these signals, they are easily plagued by low and high frequency noise components. The paper proposes a novel method based on combination of MaMeMi filter and first order derivative filter for QRS complex detection. The method is evaluated on MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The proposed technique achieves sensitivity of 99.80%, positive prediction of 96.27% and has detection error of 0.03%. The results indicate that the proposed method is robust to various noises present in ECG signals and efficiently detects QRS complexes.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-409
16 Retinal Vessel Segmentation using Combined Fuzzy and Gabor Filter
Sandeep Kaur, Pawandeep Kaur

Abstract
Fundus image plays an important role in diagnosis of eye diseases but digital images are often contaminated by impulse noise. We present a method for automatic retinal segmentation from highly noisy fundus images using combined Fuzzy and Gabor Filter. The approach uses Fuzzy filter to remove noise from the fundus image. Then Multiscale Gabor filter bank is used to obtain the segmented image. The proposed technique is tested using publicly available DRIVE database and obtains an average value of sensitivity, accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficient of 77.83%, 94.66% and 68.37 respectively. The results obtained are compared with existing technique that makes use of only Gabor filter bank.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-410
17 Dermoscopy Image Enhancement Based on Color Constancy and Fuzzy Logic
Sukhmeen Kaur, Pawandeep Kaur

Abstract
Dermoscopy images play a significant role in screening of skin related diseases. For proper melanoma diagnosis, gaining truthful color information in dermoscopy images is a very significant task. Images acquired under different dermoscopes having different illumination conditions suffer from problem of realistic color reproduction. This paper proposes a new color calibration channel which involves color correction and contrast enhancement of dermoscopy images. In the proposed method, edge based color constancy is integrated with membership function based fuzzy image enhancement which leads to removal of color artefacts turning the image to its originality and also enhances the contrast inside of lesion. The proposed approach is also compared with well known color constancy algorithms like grey world and shades of grey algorithm using statistical parameters showing supremacy over these algorithms.
Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-411
18 Fuzzy C-Means and Modified Hough Transform based Lane Detection
Pavneet Kaur, Pawandeep Kaur

Abstract
Lane detection is one of the most prominent technology in large number of intelligent vehicles and is an important part of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. It detects lanes without any proper knowledge of road geometry. This detection system is needed because due to increase in number of vehicles on road, accidents are increasing day by day. Moreover vehicular drivers are fully ignorant towards traffic rules. So we need a system that will help the driver by providing him exact path of lanes. In this paper Fuzzy C-Means and Modified Hough transform based lane detection algorithm is discussed. The proposed algorithm is designed and implemented using matlab. Straight as well as curved lane markings are detected with the help of this algorithm. Lanes in the presence of clutters like noise, shadow are also detected. Performance evaluation between existing and proposed technique is done on the basis accuracy, bit error rate, F-Measure etc.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-412
19 Development of Wind Energy Conversion System to Meet Future Energy Needs
Anil Kumar K R

Abstract
Increase in cost of energy is one of the major causes of inflation. Increase in cost of fuels, combined with non-availability of fuels has invoked interest in usage of renewable source of energy viz., wind energy as the future source of power. The study includes a description of the design and fabrication of wind mill with emphasize on the conversion system, different type of rotors and their functioning and generation of electric power. Analysis is based on geographical terrain conducive for its installation.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-413
20 Implementation of Split-Radix Algorithm for Rapid DFT Computation in CR OFDM Systems
Adarsh K M, T P Surekha, Arjun K R

Abstract
Now a days, new technologies are emerging in communication systems. It’s a challenging task to maintain good computational speed of DFT. The main intention of using Split-Radix algorithm is to boost up the computational speed of the system, hence resulting in saving time of the computation and increasing efficiency. OFDM method of modulation is involved in this paper in order to get better SNR v/s BER. Cognitive Radio (CR) plays a vital role in the domain of wireless communication. Now a days due to over population, people are facing many difficulties in communication there is a necessity of Cognitive Radio systems which takes off the problem of spectrum interference and offers efficiency in wireless communication. CR is the key to new technologies of dynamic spectrum access techniques. It provides sharing of wireless channel with licensed users.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-414
21 A Compact and Multiband Microstrip Patch Antenna with Defected Ground Structure
Priyanka Deb Sinha, Riya Bhattacharyya, Dr. Partha Pratim Sarkar

Abstract
A compact, single layer and single probe-fed microstrip patch antenna has been designed and analyzed for multi-frequency operation. The design of the microstrip patch antenna is achieved by modifying the ground plane with an inverted “L” shaped slot and a stair-like slit. Four resonating frequencies are obtained at 2.80 GHz, 7.20 GHz, 9 GHz and 10.20 GHz. Compared with the conventional patch antenna, the designed antenna can achieve a compactness of 90.32%. The designed microstrip antenna is simulated using MOM based software Ansoft Designer V2.2 and the simulated result is experimentally verified using standard microwave test bench. A good agreement is obtained between both the results. The designed microstrip antenna can be operated in S band, C band and X band of frequencies.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-415
22 Study of Various Enhancement Techniques
Palak Khandelwal, Gagandeep Kaur

Abstract As technology is evolving at a high rate in every field and in image processing as well. With the increasing need of high definition images, new techniques are emerging in image processing and for that image enhancement is playing a pivotal role. Images suffer from blurring, noise, poor contrast, poor brightness etc. which degrades the quality of the image so in order to overcome all this, image enhancement is used. Out of numerous complex techniques selection is done on the basis of area where processed image is required. It uses a ‘transform’ to improve the visual quality, contrast, brightness of an image. In medical, satellite, video conferencing, aerial images, real life photographs etc. improvement of the contrast of an image is demanded, soit can provide high quality images in different fields. A lot of work has been done by researchers in this very fieldMany methods and algorithms has been designed for the same. This paper provides an overview of various techniques used for image enhancement which includes spatial and frequency domain methods. This paper also involves other techniques falling under the category of spatial and frequency domain and compare their results as well.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-416
23 Performance Analysis of Coherent Optical OFDM System using Different Mach-Zehnder Modulators
Monika Nehra

Abstract
The OFDM technique has been proposed in coherent optical system to combat the fiber dispersion. The choice of a particular modulation technique has a greater impact on the system performance. In this paper, the different performance parameters of CO-OFDM system such as BER, Q factor (dB) etc. are analysed for both singledrive and dual-drive MZMs over 20Km SMF without using any dispersion compensation technique.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-417
24 Comparative Study of Different Image Enhancement Technique
Palak Khandelwal, Gagandeep Kaur

Abstract
In image research, most vital and difficult technique is image enhancement. Main objective of this is to improve visual appearance of an image or to provide better transformed image. Many images like in medical, satellite suffer from poor contrast and noise, so to improve the image quality, contrast is enhanced and noise is removed. Especially in detection and analysis of medical images, image enhancement improves the clarity, enhance contrast, remove blurring and noise and reveal details of an image. Improving image quality has always been a need and image enhancement technique is the best solution to this. Various technique are there which can be used to improve the quality of an image. And for measurement of quality of image, parameters like PSNR and MSE can be used. In this paper, different technique has been discussed and a new technique, erosion enhancement technique has been proposed and the results of various techniques are compared using PSNR and MSE. As per application and objective, techniques differ from each other and selection of technique differ as per application. The experimental results shows that proposed enhancement technique provides better results and better values of PSNR and MSE i.e it works better to improve the contrast and brightness of an image thus making its visual quality more better.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-418
25 Design and Analysis of Comparators using 180nm CMOS Technology
Neha, Amana Yadav, Ila Chaudhary

Abstract
The real world signals are mostly analog in nature andhence, an analog to digital converter is needed to transmit effectivelythe analog signals to digital signals. This paper describes the comparator circuits used in most of the analog circuits now-adays. Comparators play a vital role in most of the analog circuits like Flash ADC’s and the performance of these circuits is greatly influenced by the choice of comparators. In this paper, first a “ Open loop comparator” is designedand its analysis is done followed by a “TIQ comparator”, “Quantized Differential Comparator”, “Two stage CMOS amplifier with an output inverter” and “CMOS-LTE Comparator” and all of these circuits are used for implementing a lot low poweranalog circuits. After implementing all the comparator circuits, power and delay analysis has been done on the basis of which Power-Delay-Product (PDP) has been calculated. All the above circuits are implemented using 180nm CMOS technology using a supply voltage of 1.8v. TANNER EDA environment is used for design and simulation of these circuits.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-419
26 Optimization of Passive Optical Burst Switching Networks
Shiwani Gupta, Mandeep Kaur

Abstract
It is assumed that optical burst switched networks employ shortest path routing along with next hop burst forwarding. In this paper, we have reviewed tha literature for optical burst switching network and some of the parameters are studied for the performance optimisation of OBS. This paper gives the detail study of the parameters for the performance optimisation of OBS network.

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IJECT/72/1/A-420
27 An Integrated Approach to Search Engine Evolution
Ashwani Sethi, Suneel Dubey

Abstract
Information retrieval systems are backbone of every informational system.Everyday millions of users use the internet informational System like Search Engines to retrieve information over the www. Search Engine gives a high level abstraction to users over the web. On the basis of searching techniques Search Engine can divide into two broad categories Keyword Based Search and Semantic Search. This research proposes combine architecture of these two searching categories. The Proposed System combines these two techniques on the basis of query categories. This system’s design works as a load balancing technique between these two techniques for more accurate and fast results.This system implements both techniques separately for different query category.

Full Paper
IJECT/72/1/A-421