IJECT Vol. 8.3 (July – September 2017)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (IJECT)
Vol 8 Issue 3 (July – September 2017)


International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology Vol 8 Issue 3 (July – September 2017)
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
01 The Impact of Good Governance on Sustainable Economic Development in Arab Countries
Messaoudene Nesma

Abstract
The aim of this research is to identify the impact of good governance on economic growth and achieve sustainable economic development. The importance of this is at a time when most Arab countries are undergoing reformist movements aimed at achieving good governance and combating corruption. Societies are becoming aware that economic and developmental decline is the result of bad governance. Thus, the research discussed the characteristics, principles and indicators of good governance and the relationship of all this to economic growth, in the short term, and the ability to sustain it in order to achieve sustainable economic development in the long term. A mathematical economic model was also developed to measure the impact of good governance on sustaining economic growth using a multiple regression with a fixed effect. It has been applied to the indicators of governance and economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1996-2011, which showed data issued by the State of Qatar to all Arab countries not only in economic growth and population, but also in the indicators of good governance. In order to ascertain the direction of the relationship of governance to economic growth, and not vice versa, the data was collated and used in the multirandom regression model, whose results confirmed the effect of good governance on the rate of economic growth in the Arab countries. The analysis showed that the rate of economic growth is positively related to the level of institutional development and governance in the Arab countries.And that this relationship is not linked to the level of income of the state, since the fact that the state of oil or non-oil did not affect this relationship. The results also showed that not all governance indicators are equally important in influencing economic growth. The indicators of the quality of legislation, the rule of law and the fight against corruption have a significant impact on economic growth, while the indicators of participation, political stability, and government effectiveness have no clear impact due to the weakness of democratic political structures and the inadequacy of these indicators for the culture and environment of Arab societies.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-505
02 Development of Single Channel Fault Detection System Using External Accelerometer Sensor with ARM-7 Microcontroller
Sneha, Dr. Deepak Kedia, Sunny Jamb

Abstract
This paper describes a sensing unit which developed to tackle the fundamental faults faced in parts of machinery by utilizing vibration monitoring method to avoid system performance degradation, terrible failures, and malfunction. Vibration amplitude may be measured as acceleration, velocity or displacement; which may be either relative or absolute. ARM-7 development board is put to use for extracting data from the external accelerometer sensor as data acquisition module; which consists of ARM-7 LPC2478 enabling us to capture various vibratory signals from the triple axis Adxl335 mounted on the testing module. Adxl335 is meant to calculate the static and dynamic accelerations. The analyzed data from ARM is represented in real time. The specific components’ defects have been seen as frequency spectrums by using FFT. Conclusively, FFT of the vibration signal is analyzed to extract dominant spectral peaks (and its harmonics) of fault cases. The faults can be examined by comparing the FFT signals of machine health circumstances.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-506
03 Efficient Color Image Quality Assessment Using Gradient Magnitude Similarity Deviation
Preeti Rani, Vinod Kumar

Abstract
In the present research work, a new objective image quality assessment method based on gradient similarity map and directional derivatives map is presented and called as Efficient Image Quality Assessment (EIQA). It assesses image quality by using different characteristics of human visual system (HVS). Considering directional derivative map (DDM) is important because there exists anisotropic structure in the image and the edges always stretch out in multiple directions. The Gradient Similarity Map (GSM) is employed as the secondary features in EIQA. The proposed EIQA method has been compared with Gradient Magnitude Similarity Deviation (GMSD) and other conventional image quality assessment (IQA) metrics using three widely used databases i.e. LIVE (Laboratory for Image & Video Engineering), TID2008 (Tamper Image Database 2008) and CSIQ (Categorical Subjective Image Quality). The proposed method yield better performance in terms of correlation coefficients such as Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (SROCC), Kendall rank-order correlation coefficient (KROCC), Pearson linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) with the help of MATLAB software.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-507
04 Design of 4 Bit FLASH Analog to Digital Converter Using TM Comparator Circuit and Gray to Base2 Encoder using 0.13μm CMOS Technology
Boni Srinu, M.Nagendra Kumar

Abstract
As communication mainly done in the form of digital data, the applications for ADCs increases Analog-to-Digital converters are needed in all those applications, which interface with the analogue world and exploit the digital processing of data. As digital processing is more and more gaining ground over analogue signal processing, the importance of Analog – to- digital converters correspondingly increases. The Flash type ADC, also known as Direct Conversion ADC, uses a bank of comparators, operating in parallel to achieve a high data conversion rate. In this paper, an area efficient low power high Speed 4-bit Flash Type ADC using gray to base-2 encoder is proposed in 130 nm CMOS technology. The concept of Threshold Modified Comparator Circuit (TMCC) is also introduced as a modification of the conventional comparator. The proposed design of the ADC occupies an active area of 0.0036 mm2 and consumes 43.146 pW of average power while operating with an input frequency of 10 MHz and a supply voltage of 1.8 Volt.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-508
05 Review Paper on Vivaldi Antenna for UWB Application
Prabhjot Kaur, Karamjit Kaur

Abstract
This paper describes the design of vivaldi antenna and show different feeding techniques that is used to give feed to the tapered slot vivaldi antenna. This paper also discussed the antenna parameters and material properties. This paper presents the literature survey on UWB application using different feeding technique.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-509
06 Glaucoma Recogination Using Superpixel Classification and Artificial Neural Network
Anzeena T.N., Swathy Sebastian

Abstract
Glaucoma is an incurable eye disease which causes damage to the optic nerve and leads to progressive and irreversible loss of vision. So earlier detection of glaucoma is very important. The clinical examination of Cup Disc Ratio (CDR) could be a standard procedure used for glaucoma screening. But the recent existing methods are not sensitive enough for population based glaucoma screening.
The paper proposes an optic disc and optic cup segmentation using Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) algorithm of super pixel classification. It automatically locates the optic cup and optic disc from retinal 2D fundus images. In optic disc segmentation, Center Surround Statistics (CSS) are used to classify each super pixel as disc or non-disc. In optic cup segmentation, in addition to the center surround statistics, the location information is also included into the feature space to increase the performance. ANN classifier with GDM (Gradient descent with momentum) algorithm is used to train the images. The segmented optic disc and optic cup are then used to compute the area and find the CDR for glaucoma screening. The result is further classified into glaucoma detected or not based on the CDR value. The results obtained show that the methodology successfully classifies the retinal image. The accuracy obtained was 99%, sensitivity was 99.6% and specificity was 99.2%. The ROC and confusion matrix was plotted from the analysis.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-510
07 An Improved Method for Data Hiding and Secure Dissemination of Multispectral Images
Arya Divakaran

Abstract
The acquisition and preprocessing of multispectral images are manpower-intensive tasks and costly. Multispectral images are used in various applications including defense, which are related to national security. This makes multispectral images highly sensitive and its security needs urgent attention Therefore, it is very important to protect the ownership rights of these images. Digital watermarking serves as a solution over the above problem. The paper proposes a novel and improved method for data hiding and secure dissemination of multispectral images using cryptowatermarking. Digital watermarking and encryption are used to achieve copyright protection and security of multispectral images at dissemination level. Haar based 2D DWT at three level is developed for copyright protection. Simple and strongly secure encryption based on multiplicative and two-stage transposition cipher is used to provide security at the transmission level. Arnold transformation is used to enhance the robustness and security of the watermarking scheme. PSNR and SSIM are the two parameters used to check the quality of the decrypted image and watermark image in this paper.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-511
08 An Enhanced Crack Detection and Alerting System for Railway Tracks
Poongothai C, Muralikrishna S M, Kesavan K R

Abstract
This paper proposes an advanced approach for the detection of cracks in the railway tracks. The principal problem with the present day system has been the lack of cheap and efficient technology to detect cracks on the railway tracks. If these deficiencies are not controlled at early stages they might lead to a number of derailments resulting in a heavy loss of life and property. The proposed rail crack detection system automatically detects the faulty rail track without any human intervention. This system comprises of GPS module, GSM module, IR sensors, Ultrasonic sensor to bring into operation the crack and object detection. There are many advantages with the proposed system when compared with the traditional detection techniques. The advantages include less cost, low power consumption and less analysis time. By this proposed system the exact location of the faulty rail track can easily be located which will be mended immediately so that many lives can be saved. We hope that our idea can be implemented in the long run to facilitate better safety standards and provide effective testing infrastructure for achieving better results in near future.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-512
09 Design and Fabrication of a Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna for GPS Application
Zahid Hasan, Ashiq Zaman, Dr. Anis Ahmed

Abstract
Nowadays GPS receivers are vastly used mainly for satellite navigation of vehicles, aircraft, ships, and cellular communication. The two most popular types of antennas used in GPS receivers are patch and quad helix. Microstrip patch antennas are appropriate antenna for GPS receiver because of their light weight, ease of installation, single hemispheric radiation pattern and low profile. This research work is focused on designing and fabricating a new type of inset feed Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna (CMPA). By introducing a circular slot at the center of the ground plane, enhanced characteristics of patch antenna can be achieved. Emphasis has been given on the optimization of the antenna structure at 1.8 GHz by using simulation software CST Microwave Studio. From simulation and measured results it is found that our proposed patch antenna shows improved performance compared to a conventional CMPA.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-513
10 Design of Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna by Using Metamaterial and its Applications
Sunayana, Misha Thakur

Abstract
Microstrip patch antennas have a lot of benefits and higher aspects as compare to standard antennas. They’re used for mobile applications as a result of they are lighter in weight, low volume, low cost, low profile, smaller in dimension and easy fabrication. Metamaterial is employed for planning this antenna that has negative permittivity and porosity, it’s a synthetic medium with negative index of refraction. Particle Swarm optimization technique gave straight forward calculation within the style of Microstrip patch antenna and analysis the result of assorted style parameter. During this paper we tend to discuss the Microstrip antenna, its style and application of Microstrip patch antenna with their advantage and drawbacks over standard microwave antennas.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-514
11 On Choice of Wavelet for DWT-DFT-SVD based Image Watermarking Scheme
Mehak Saini, Dr. Priyanka

Abstract
Watermarking has been identified as a promising solution to provide protection to the digital media from illegal manipulations by the hackers. Watermarking techniques in frequency domain are more robust as compared to spatial domain techniques. In frequency domain, many watermarking techniques based on disrete fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, singular value decomposition, discrete wavelet transform etc. have been reported inliterature. In this work, the effect of type of wavelet on a DWT-DFT-SVD based scheme has been examined with respect to image quality and robustness of the water marking schemes against various attacks.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-515
12 FPGA Implementation of Algorithmic Counter Based Wallace Multiplier
Sanjeeva Rao B, Ram Kumar A

Abstract
In this paper presents an algorithmic approach to construct high speed Wallace tree multiplier using proposed 7:3 counter along with full adder and half adder. This power efficient and high speed method can be used to implement counter based Wallace multiplier suitable for FPGA or ASIC synthesis tools. This concept is less complex as it avoids conventionally used multiplication and addition steps. It is an optimized method for Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), applications.
Full Paper
IJECT/83/1/A-516