INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (IJECT)
Vol 8 Issue 4 (Oct – December 2017)
International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology Vol 8 Issue 4 (Oct – December 2017)
|Continuous Authentication for Mouse Gesture Recognition using Hidden Markov Model
Chinmayee.KS, Vanishree C
The mouse dynamics biometric is a behavioral biometric technology that extracts and analyzes the movement characteristics of the mouse input device when a computer user interacts with a graphical user interface for identification purposes. The existing mouse dynamics analyzes has continuous authentication or reauthentication for which exact results have been achieved. Static authentication using mouse gesture dynamics faces some challenges because of the limited amount of data that has captured. Authentication is the process of determining whether someone or something is, in fact, who or what it claim to be. A new category of biometrics that is gaining popularity is behaviometrics, where analysis focuses on the user s behavior while he interacts with computing systems for identification purposes. In this paper, a new mouse dynamics analysis framework uses mouse gesture dynamics for static authentication. The captured gestures are analyzed using a Hidden Markov Model. This results in improvement of both the accuracy and validation compared to the existing mouse dynamics approaches.
|Design A Darlington Amplifier with Improved Gain and Slew Rate
Rashmi Singh, Rajesh Mehra
In current trend of technology enhancement, the demand for Darlington pair amplifier for high data rate communication system has been considered as of paramount importance. The use of Darlington pair amplifier has been suggested in a condition, where requirement of high gain at a low frequency is applicable. Recently, Darlington pair amplifier has been testified with high gain bandwidth product for current applications. This paper presents a slew rate enhancement technique for Darlington pair amplifier. A three stage Darlington amplifier with proposed improvement are designed and implemented on 180nm technology. A slew rate booster circuit is connected to a three stage Darlington pair amplifier. The designed circuit is applicable in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). After applying slew rate booster, the gain becomes 26 dB and the positive slew rate is recorded at 28.4 μV/S and negative slew rate is recorded at -28.4μV/S. Therefore, this paper highlights the use of slew rate enhancement technique
to improve the gain of Darlington pair amplifier.
|A Robust Approach for Power Monitoring and Device Management
Anjali Parate, Sagar Ghormade
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly important because of their ability to monitor and manage situational information for various intelligent services. Due to these advantages, WSNs has been applied in many fields, such as the military, industry, environmental monitoring, and healthcare. As the power consumption varies as per the uses it is necessary to reduce the power usage and manage the total power consumption. To do so we propose a design for wireless sensor based embedded system for monitoring and controlling of remotely electrical appliances. Smart monitoring and controlling system will calculate the total power consumption of electrical appliances. The system uses genetic algorithm which helps in the optimization of the system performance. Thus, the GUI is developed to show the status and consumption of electrical appliances which in turn help the user to manage the appliances wirelessly.
|Battery Less Phones: A Deep Assessment on Device for Long Range Scavenging of Wireless Power
Sparsh Rawlani, Purvesh Biyani, Apoorv Joshi
If we just date back to January 9, 2007, it’s the date when the world first witnessed a smart phone, and in fact, the first ‘Touch screen phone’. Mr. Jobs, the owner of Apple Inclusive launched the “I-phone” aiming to turn everyone’s life uncomplicated. And then, it has been ten years since the launch of the smart phone, and in these 10 years, the world has observed a revolutionary change in the era of smart phones. One of the most drastic changes was witnessed in the batteries of these smart phones, ranging from 1000mAh to 5000mAh on an average. In the past couple of years, intense usage of smart phones for various purposes has resulted in battery draining at a rapid rate. Many types of research have been done in order to find the exact reason for the battery drain at a rapid rate and its solutions, although none of them were able to accomplish anything special, and hence, rather than to find a solution to battery’s long life, a different solution was established and it was to construct phones, which can be operated without batteries.
This research paper focuses on the implementations of “Battery Less Smart phones”, and on its pros and cons. It will also state some of the economic and possible changes that can be made as per our research.
|Improved LEACH Protocol Based on K-Means Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network
Pratiksha Saheb, Dr. Kanika Sharma
Wireless sensor network encompasses of distributed autonomous tiny sensor devices that cooperatively works within a specified environmental conditions and detects several physical parameters such as vibration, temperature, pressure, motion, and sound for a number of applications. Network life maximization becomes a primary concern for designing a wireless sensor network. Effective clustering methods are used to protect the valuable battery energy of the sensor nodes and improvise the network longevity. LEACH is furthermost widespread clustering and routing arrangements that can be used to accomplish the sensor network. In this paper, we illustrate an enhanced variant of LEACH protocol which utilizes K-means clustering calculation for choosing better cluster heads. And also deliberates residual energy as an additional parameter. Our proposed arrangement tries to make symmetric clusters and by lessening the normal intra-cluster distance for enhances the system lifetime.
|Optimization of Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Network using Cooperative Relay Channel
Aparna Singh Kushwah, Kartik Mehra
Cognitive radio is an emerging technology for the opportunistic use of under-utilized spectrum. It promises to change the future technological trends forever if employed properly. Spectrum sensing is the major function of a cognitive radio network. This paper proposes a new strategy to optimize the overall performance in cooperative spectrum sensing. Optimization strategy is proposed in order to optimize the overall performance by varying the SNR. We consider optimization of cooperative spectrum sensing with energy detection to minimize the total error rate. Here we derive optimal voting rule for optimal value of cognitive radios. The effects of spectrum sensing technique type that used locally at each CR, the local SNR and the total number of cooperated CRs on the optimal fusion rule are found. The Energy Detector (ED) spectrum sensing technique is used as local spectrum sensing techniques. Here, different error levels are founded by varying the SNR values to find the optimal number of CRs for minimizing the error levels.
|Smart Home Wireless Automation Technology using Arduino based on IOT
Rampeesa Vijay, Thotakura Sainag, Vamsee Krishna A
The “IOT based Interactive Controlling and Monitoring System for home automation” is another technological headway which can control and screen gadgets nor just for home automation yet any genuine apparatuses remotely. Any automation venture utilizing inserted system like PIC Microcontroller gives an astute, low cost, energy protecting system for homes, schools, healing facilities. The primary goal of this paper is to plan and give execution points of interest of IOT for home and also for any genuine applications to consequently switch on/off lights, fans, gas, shades, doors utilizing sensors, which is equipped for controlling and mechanizing the greater part of the genuine living. In general, we know that we are using a number of appliances at homes, theatres, shopping malls, Convention Halls, Hotels that appliances we are connecting directly to the power and consumes a power. Due to this, some appliances failure due to over voltage. Here, we are using some components to control from overflow voltage. In this model we use micro controller (ATMEGA328P), is connected to the nodemcu, 4-channel relay board and liquid crystal display (LCD). Here the input is given to the micro controller through the LCD to display temperature. The output of this signal is given to the micro controller which in which a pin becomes active when any obstacle is finding the room temperature. 4-channel relay board is connected to control the large appliances, meanwhile we are connecting switches to operate and nodemcu(Wi-Fi module) to control with remote access.
|Localization in Wireless Sensor Network Using Manifold Learning
Ruchi Tripathi, Saurabh Shukla, Naresh Patel, Shristi Priya
This Paper focuses on Localization in Wireless Sensor Network using a new methodology named Manifold Learning. The localization of wireless sensor network is essential for various applications today which need to know a node’s actual position. Also, there are many factors which affect the performance of any algorithm which has been designed for localization. These factors are discussed in this paper. Localization has become a hot topic of research and many new versions and increments are made to the algorithms for improving the performance. We made use of basically two methods which are applied one after the other. These two techniques come under Manifold learning, the first one is Locally linear embedding; the second is its incremental version by the name of Incremental Locally linear embedding.
|Design and Performance Analysis of Low Power ALU
In this paper, the gate level circuit of a 1-bit CMOS Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) is designed and performance is analyzed. The main requirement of any technology is to design and develop low power circuit. Along with the power, high speed ICs are leading the VLSI industry. Here the performance of the proposed design is simulated and evaluated in terms of delay and power using tanner tools S-EDIT with different FANIN’s using NAND gate. Power and delay has a major impact while designing any circuit. So, these factors play a major role in deciding the efficiency of the designed circuit.
|Design and Implementation of High Speed Multiplier Using Adiabatic Logic
N.Sasipriya, R.Latha, P.Poornima
In VLSI Design Area Power consumption is an important issue. In high performance systems Multipliers are having a major role. One of such multiplier is The Wallace tree multiplier. It is faster than a simple array multiplier and is an efficient implementation of a digital circuit. This multiplier which is effective both in terms of speed and power. One of an attractive solution for low power electronic applications is Adiabatic logic style. By using this technique energy dissipation in PMOS network can be minimized and some amount of energy stored at load capacitance can be recycled instead of dissipated. In this paper ECRL(Efficient Charge Recovery Logic) based Wallace tree multiplier is compared with conventional logic based Wallace tree multiplier. Tanner EDA tools are used for simulation.
|Modeling, Simulation and a Relative Study of CNT Bundle with Copper for VLSI Interconnect
The vital innovation scaling in VLSI prompts reduce the extent of chip. Such consistent scaling down of VLSI devices has strong impact on the VLSI advancement in a couple of customs. The interconnect delay turns out to be substantially more colossal and the performance of ICs have been prolonged. Copper interconnects have turned into a huge implementation limiter. Thusly to overcome from the limitation, Carbon Nano tubes have been projected as a conceivable substitution of copper interconnects. This paper displays the extensive investigation on the demonstrating and re-enactment strategies of blended CNT package interconnects. The performance of Mixed CNT interconnects is evaluated and examined against standard Cu interconnects at diverse parameters. The proposed displaying and reproduction methods for CNT interconnect organize are required to assume a vital part later on CNT nanotechnology applications. CNTs indicated 30% change in delay and vitality over copper at the 22 nm nodes and a half increment in all out system throughput for a power obliged onchip arrange application.
|Effect of Feed Techniques and Substrate Material on Rectangular Patch Antenna
I.A. Alhaji, F. S. Ishaq, A. S. Aminu
This paper investigates the performance of a rectangular patch antenna with regard to return loss, VSWR and total gain at 2.4GHz for WLAN applications. One of the deficient characteristics of a patch antenna is the impedance mismatch brought about mainly by the choice of substrate material of the antenna and the feeding technique. A patch antenna was designed with these feeding techniques; Edge Feed, Inset Feed and Probe Feed and three distinct substrate materials namely; FR4_epoxy, Rogers RT Duroid 5800™ and Rogers RO 3003™ to check on how to mitigate this mismatch. Simulation analysis shows that Inset Feed technique and Rogers RT Duroid 5800™ when used together are more superior to other feeding techniques and substrate materials in enhancing the performance of a rectangular patch antenna in term of return loss, VSWR and total gain.