INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (IJECT)
IRTD Vol 8 Issue 4 (Oct – December 2017)
International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology Vol 8 Issue 4 (Oct – December 2017)
|Application of Nanotechnology in Medical Science for Photodynamic Therapy
Mihir Narayan Mohanty, Manas Ranjan Senapati
Nanotechnology applications in biomedical science consists of drug eluting interfaces for implantable devices, vascular stents, orthopedic implants, dental implants, and cancer therapy. Photodynamic therapy represents an alternative treatment with great potential in some types of cancer and premalignant conditions. In the quest to improve this therapy, potential new non-tetrapyrrole photosensitizers are currently under research. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the administration of a photosensitizing agent (also known as a photosensitizer, PS), which is further activated by external irradiation with light. This therapy results in a sequence of photochemical and photo-biological processes that trigger irreversible damage to the irradiated tissues. Photodynamic therapy has emerged as an alternative to chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer treatment. Nanoparticles have recently been proposed as effective carriers for photosensitizers. Depending on their chemical composition, these can be used for diagnosis and therapy due to the selective accumulation of the photosensitizer in cancer cells. The safety aspects in the applications of nanotechnology to biomedical issues are also examined.
|Design Optimization of Loud-Speaker Using Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm
Mehak Saini, Dr Sanju Saini, Dr K K Saini
In this paper, Cuckoo optimization algorithm has been used to optimize the design of a loud speaker that has been modeled by using 16 design variables. The design problem is to minimize the overall volume of the speaker while maintaining at least minimum prescribed magnetic field intensity. The condition has been modeled as an inequality constraint, in which the flux density is required to be larger than a given fixed value.
|A Novel Method For Video Watermarking Using 2LWT in YCbCr Color Space
Munish Kumar, Dr. Sandeep Kumar, Dr. Yashpal Singh, Subodh Gupta
Video Watermarking is a prominent technique used to provide the authentication to the multimedia data such as audio, video and text. It is also used to resolve the copyright protection and ownership problem. This paper presents secure transmission for video watermarking using two-level lifting wavelet transform (LWT). For copyright protection and image quality, we used 2-LWT for video watermarking. In our method, LWT is applied to decompose the video frames and produce the low and highfrequency coefficients to take benefits of “power compaction” goods. The experimental outcomes give good results up to 85.49% as compared to previous results. Several results show that the presented method is able to withstand various attacks. In this study, we determined the performance of this algorithm on the basis of Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Normalized Correlation (NC) value of various watermarked images.
|A Comprehensive Analysis of Different Image Enhancement Techniques for Feature Extraction
Mehak Saini, Dr. K K Saini
Digital Image enhancement plays very useful role in Feature extraction since enhancing quality of digital image makes extraction easy and accurate. The ultimate goal of Image enhancement is to make Images more noticeable for subsequent analysis or for image display. Examples include contrast and edge enhancement, noise filtering, sharpening, and magnifying. Image enhancement is useful in feature extraction, image analysis and an image display. This work describes some Image enhancement techniques used for feature extraction. In feature extraction, Noise filtering, contrast stretching and histogram modification are most important image enhancing techniques for further analysis.
|A Performance Analysis on Iris Image Enhancement Using Histogram Techniques
Dr. Sandeep Kumar, Munish Kumar, Prof. Dr. Yashpal Singh
An iris is unique physiological biometric traitcompared to other biological traits to authenticate a person. In this paper we presented iris contrast enhancement using different histogram equalization (HE) techniques, High-Resolution Fundus (HRF) iris database is considered in the pre-processing. The iris template is enhanced using the Adaptive histogram, Brightness-Bi histogram, CLAHE and HE. The performance of iris image quality is measured such as Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE).
|A Hybrid of Optical and Wireless Communications System
Mehak Saini, Madhwendra Nath, Dr. K K Saini
This paper presents the analysis and the realization of a hybrid 60 GHz wireless communications system. As the 50 GHz radio link operates only in a single-room configuration, an additional Radio over Fibre (RoF) link is used to ensure the communications in all the rooms of a residential environment. A single carrier architecture is adopted. The system uses low complexity baseband processing modules. A byte/frame synchronization technique is designed to provide a high value of the preamble detection probability and a very small value of the false alarm probability. Conventional RS (255, 239) encoder and decoder are used to correct errors in the transmission channel. Results of Bit Error Rate (BER) measurements are presented for various antennas configurations.
|Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, OFDM for Optimizing the Services of Wireless Communication System
Sanjay Kumar Gautam, Nitesh Arya, Dr. Y.P.Singh
The communication in the past decades has made the revolution in the ICT techniques. It is only due to the recent advancement communication techniques, OFDM have opened the developed area for further Research. Many advantages of OFDM over single carrier scheme is, its ability to cope with severe channel conditions such as attenuation of high frequency in a long copper wire .OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation technique with densely spaced subcarriers that has gained a lot of popularity among the broadband community in the last few years. OFDM has been shown to be an effective technique to combat multipath fading in wireless communications. OFDM has chosen as the standard for digital audio broadcasting and high-speed wireless local areas networks. Present Paper, explore the OFDM Modulation its advantages and demerits, and some applications of OFDM. OFDM Techniques for peak-to-average power ratio reduction (PAPR), time and frequency synchronization, and channel estimation will be discussed. We conclude with a brief overview of current application areas.
|A Review on Detecting Carcinoma of Lung at an Early Stage
Mehak Saini, Priyanshu Tripathi, Dr. KK Saini
This paper presents a survey on Lung cancer and its effects. Lung cancer, also known as carcinoma of the lung is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth may spread beyond the lung by process of metastasis into neighbor tissue or other parts of the body. Detecting lung cancer at an early stage is a challenging and difficult task since there are very few or no symptoms in this stage of the disease and majority of the cases are diagnosed in the later stages of the disease. Treating cancer in the early stages can provide more treatment options and increases the survival rate. There are many methods which can be used to detect the cancer cells. These methods include Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy Clustering Methods, Segmentation and Thresholding methods.
|LIFI Communication Technology (VLC): An Innovative Techniques Leading the Adaptation for Self-Dependent Nation
Sanjay Kumar Gautam, Nitesh Arya, Dr. Y.P.Singh
LIFI is the latest and imerging techniques for developing the communication system based on the VLC(visible light communication) which is totally harmless, clean and green communication system. With the advancement and adaptation of the techniques, a developing country like India may be benefitted in multifold with this. On one way it is totally harmless for living beings as based on light, on the other hand it will save light (Power) in multifold. As power saving is the national assest and lead to the development and self dependent of Nation]
|Power Consumption and Optimization of Energy Consumption for Telecom Towers in India
Eisha Akanksha, Dr. Y.P. Singh
In this paper, the work consists of categorizing telecommunication Base Stations (BTS) for INDIA and their power consumption. It also proposes some parameters for saving of energy. Telecom sector is the second largest consumer of energy after transportation and base stations are responsible for the large amount of energy consumed in cellular networks. According to the data provided by Minister of State for Communications and IT Milind Deora, India has total 7,36,654 base transceiver stations (BTS -2G GSM and CDMA & 3G Mobile Towers) while out of that only 96,212 BTSs have been installed to provide 3G mobile and data services. These telecom towers that require about 12-14 billion units of electrical energy  and energy consumption per tower will further increase with green field tower roll outs and increase in BTS tenancies. On average, 70% of the new towers to be constructed every year would be in the rural areas where grid power is not the primary source of energy. Further, over 300,000 new BTS will be required in the rural market over next 4-5 years.