IJECT Vol. 8.2(April – June 2017)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (IJECT)
Vol 8 Issue 2 (April – June 2017)


International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology Vol 8 Issue 2 (April – June 2017)
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
01 FPGA Implementation of LTE-Advanced Downlink Physical Layer Transceiver
Sara M. Hassan, Abdelhalim Zekry

Abstract
To achieve a higher bit rates up to 1 Gbps for meeting the growing needs of the users of the mobile communication system the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) introduced the Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) as an advanced standard for the mobile communication systems. The new features added by the LTE-A on the physical layer is a direct consequence for applying new modulation and coding techniques for both the Uplink and Downlink. The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) was applied for the Downlink and the Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) was applied for the Uplink as well as turbo coding. This paper presents the design and implementation of the LTE-A downlink transmitter and receiver using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) according to release 10/11 on Virtex 6 XC6VLX240T FPGA kit using Xilinx® ISE® Design Suite version 13.3.All stages of the LTE-A downlink physical layer (PYH) transceiver, besides the time and frequency synchronization in a receiver,are implemented with 2×2 MIMO and Intra-band contiguous Carrier Aggregation type with two Component Carriers.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-480
02 Fingerprint Authenticated Device Switcher Using Microcontroller and Arduino Uno
Sajan Rahman, Allen Dhakhwa

Abstract
Fingerprint matching has been successfully used by law enforcement for more than a century. The technology is now finding lot of other applications such as identity management and access control. In this context, an automated fingerprint recognition system and identification of key challenges are described along with the switching opportunities. The description is like a product design in this report implementing RTOS (Real time operating system) under the domain of embedded system. Fingerprint Recognition is a widely popular but complex pattern recognition Problem. In this paper, we have come with a novel approach to solve the existing problems with a proper Embedded System Design. In this project as well the fingerprint detection makes it coherent with the application involved within. The solutions viable are never ending but the switching mechanisms are to be sought after.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-481
03 A Survey on Various Swarm Intelligent Techniques and Applications
Subhashis Mishra, Debashis Mishra, Dr. Madhabananda Das

Abstract
Swarm intelligence is an essential research field in today’s era which is being used in various applications such as image processing, signal processing, wireless sensor networks etc. swarm intelligence is mainly used to solve various optimization problems. It is the mutual comportment of decentralized and self-organized systems. Here system may refer to natural or artificial group. This paper has the main objective to do an extensive survey on various kind of swarm intelligent technique those are evolved since 1995 till date. It will also focus on various application of the swarm intelligence.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-482
04 Arduino Based Real Time Instrumentation System for Remote Precision Farming
K. Mahesh Babu, R.Priyakanth, T. Hamsa Priya, K. Harini, M. Harshitha, S. M. Keerti Sree

Abstract
Precision agriculture is a farming management method based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra field variability in crops. Monitoring and recording of environmental conditions is necessary for precision farming. In this system, wireless sensors are used for monitoring soil parameters such as soil temperature, soil humidity, soil moisture and pH. This data is stored and analyzed based on which the decision about the suitable crop is made. This real time data is useful for efficient farming. A GSM module interfaced with Arduino is used for sending messages to a specific mobile device of a farmer with details about the suitable crop that can be grown in their respective fields. This method of soil testing in agriculture provides farmers with information about their crops. In this paper the estimation of different crop conditions are presented after a systematic study of relevant parameters involved in this estimation.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-483
05 Analysis of TDM PON using Different Data Rates and Longer Reach
Sudhir Bussa, Riya Sachdeva, Ayushi Tripathi

Abstract
Telecommunication’s present need for reliable data transmission is more data rates with longer reach capability. These demands and requirements can be met by implementing optical networks. A passive optical network which reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required can give the desired improvements. This work analyzes and estimates the performance of TDM-PON Using Different Data Rates and Longer Reach by the use of 16 Users in the Optical Network Unit at the receiver’s side.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-484
06 Smart Grid and Smart Meters – A Beginner’s Perspective
Padmaprabha V R, Jiju K, Divya D S

Abstract
Energy crisis is a global problem which has started decades ago, continues to affect the existing generations and those in the future. Increasing population, change in lifestyle, comfort and automation has increased much more than the past decades, thereby increasing the demand. The limited energy resources are insufficient to meet the demand thereby worsening the demand supply gap. Electricity is one of the most used forms of energy with a wide range of applications. Electricity Grid is the network of Generators, Transmitters, Distributors and Consumers of electrical energy. Modernization of Electricity grid by incorporating Smart and efficient methods have created a new generation of grids called Smart Grids. One attractive and important benefit of the Smart Grid compared to the conventional methods is the two-way communication facility connecting the utility and users. Monitoring of the energy consumed is done by Energy Meters which has undergone evolution through years from the basic Analog meters to the latest trend of Smart Meters. Besides providing the basic functionality of monitoring the energy usage, Smart Meter has several advantages. This paper studies the different aspects of Smart meter and Smart Grid from a beginner’s perspective.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-485
07 UVM Based Verification of MVB Encoder for Rolling Stock Application
Nisha R N, Ajeesh A, Nevin Samuel, Divya D S

Abstract
This paper describes the implementation of Verification Intellectual Property (VIP) for MVB (Multifunction Vehicle Bus) Encoder, using UVM (Universal Verification Methodology). The SOPC (System on a Programmable Chip) based communication controller of rolling stock vehicles have an Encoder IP for MVB data, which is designed as per IEC 61375 standards. Before using the encoder as an IP, it must be verified. VIP for MVB Encoder is based on UVM. VIP is implemented with inbuilt features like random stimulus generation, error checking mechanisms, test bench generation etc. Coverage Driven Verification technology is adopted here to measure the efficiency of VIP.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-486
08 Design of a Tri- Band Frequency Reconfigurable Monopole Antenna for GSM UMTS and Wi-Fi Applications
Prasanna Paga, Dr. H.C.Nagaraj, Dr. T.S.Rukmini

Abstract
This paper highlights the proposed design for a Tri band Monopole antenna using a Rectangular complementary Split Ring Resonator and fed through a 50Ω feed over the FR4 substrate for GSM, UMTS and Wi-Fi applications. The novelty of this work lies in using the Rectangular Complementary Split ring resonator in the Ground plane for creating an additional tuning to the three frequency bands of interest. The proposed antenna resonates at 0.9GHz, 2.1GHz and 2.4 GHz covering the GSM, UMTS and Wi-Fi frequency bands repectively.The proposed Antenna resulted in a Gain of 5.3dBi, 6.32dBi and 8.0dBi for GSM, UMTS and Wi-Fi respectively. The proposed Antenna size is 100mm by 40mm. The results were validated using Antenna simulation tool Ansoft HFSSTM version15.0.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-487
09 Steganography using DES, ABC Optimization and Image Scrambling
Abhinav Reddy Muthyala, S. Krithiga, K.V.M. Monic, Jana Saikishore

Abstract
With the evolution of Internet Technology, the need for the security of information during its transmission has also increased rapidly. Steganography plays a prominent role in the field of data hiding and providing a means for secret communication. Steganography basically refers to the process of secretly hiding messages into a cover medium in a way that only the receiver can suspect its existence. In this, the data is hidden behind the cover image. The data is hidden character wise behind the pixels of the image. The various algorithms or techniques used for steganography are LSB-Hash, RSA Encryption, and Decryption. In this project, we use DES Encryption to increase the security level, and DWT to preserve the original quality of the cover image, while also keeping the original image intact after extraction. The usage of ABC Optimization increases the embedding capacity and gives improved PSNR and MSE values. Along with this scrambling algorithm to increase the security level of transmission.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-488
10 Design of triangular Monopole Microstrip Patch Antenna for UWB Wireless Applications
Gurpreet Kaur, Parminder Singh Saini, Amandeep Singh

Abstract
Antennas have wide range of applications from radio astronomy to deep space communications and from biomedical industry to indoor personal Communications. The performance characteristics of the Communication system are heavily influenced by the selection, position and design of the antenna suite. This paper presents design of a triangular Monopole Microstrip Patch antenna\ designed for UWB wireless applications. The proposed antenna exhibits wideband characteristics ranging from 4.2 GHz to 10.75 GHz having return loss < -39 dB to < -24 dB. Obtained return loss reflects the perfect impedance matching. The results of the designed antenna are further improved by using partial ground planes. The advantages of tuning stubs are exploited for the tuning of reflection coefficient and resonant frequency. The antenna is designed and simulated in Ansoft HFSS Software.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-489
11 Performance Analysis of Device -to- Device Users in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle as Flying Base Station
Arun Kumar, Pushpraj Tanwar, Aman Saraf

Abstract
Device-to-device(D2D) communication allows proximate devices to communicate to each other, thereby mitigate cellular traffic on the base station and improving overall performance of the network. To establish a connected cellular network in remote locations, base stations(BSs) are assumed to be unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV) flying above the ground and user equipment(UE) located in the remote areas. The UAV- UE link may or may not be a LoS, but here LoS approach is consider. Closed form expression for Outage Probability (OP) and system sum rate are derived here, and variation of OP is observed with respect to different network parameters such as SINR Threshold (β) and D2D distance (d0). Results shows that on increasing SINR Threshold and D2D user Density, We are able to increase system sum rate. We also show that outage probability is increased with SINR threshold and λd /λdu.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-490
12 A Non-invasive Approach for Salivary Glucose Detection
Y. R. Dhumal, Kajal Dnyaneshwar Patil, Priyanka Subhash Patil, Poojita Sureshkumar

Abstract
This paper describes about the non-invasive approach for the glucose detection in saliva. There are different Diagnostic devices are available in the market to measure the blood glucose level. Hence the necessity arises to diagnostic the body glucose by using some another approach which will be the non-invasive and painless to the patient. Diabetes is the known systemic disease which affects the whole metabolism of the body. In this paper to study SG (saliva glucose) itself indicates for the quality of diabetes care, but not intended to replace regular BG (blood glucose) tests. It can help patients to monitor and control their health conditions. In this paper we basically approached for the two methods. In which for the first approach we used the solidified glucose oxidase strips to detect the saliva glucose but this method failed. Hence, by further proceeding for another approach in that we prepared GOD (glucose oxidase) and POD (peroxidase) method to detect the amount of the glucose present in the saliva. Also we determined the relation between blood glucose level and saliva glucose level.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-491
13 ECG Monitoring on Android Smart Phone
L.S. Kalkonde, Mrunali S. Salve, Ankita S. Bhatiya

Abstract
The Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world. Due to the changing life style heart attack rate is increasing day by day. In India, current heart attack rate is about 25%. The main cause of heart attack is a lack of medical care at the right time. To avoid this there is a need of regular checkup of health. In some cases it might be required to monitor ECG frequently. But it is not possible due to the high cost of healthcare equipment as well as time consuming process. This is the limitations of existing system. So, there is a need of low cost, portable, low power and time saving ECG monitoring device. With the use of this portable device patient can monitor there ECG anytime, anywhere and send the report of ECG to the doctor and can effectively communicate with the doctor. In case of any abnormality doctor may call the patient. This paper presents the development of Low cost, low power, portable and time saving ECG monitoring device.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-492
14 Estimation of Open & Short Circuit Fault Distances in the Underground Cable using Arduino & GSM Module
S. Madhavi, D. Durga Bhavani, Ch. Harika, B. Vineela, P.V.S. Sruthi Mrunalini

Abstract
Cables are playing a major role in the transmission of either power or information. Initially the transmission was carried with overhead cables which were threaded in the air. With the increase in population and environmental constraints such as snow, storms, heavy rain falls, etc., the performance of the overhead cables has been greatly affected. These problems have been eliminated by using underground cables. However the problem with the underground cables is that once a fault occurs it is very difficult to identify the exact location of the fault as they are buried underground. The primary aim of our paper is to design a circuit that helps to identify the open and short circuit faults in the underground cables using Arduino and also find the distance of the these faults accurately from the base station. In addition to this GSM module has been implemented by which the information can be sent to the concerned person in the form of a text message specifying the exact type of the fault as well as its location from the base station.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-493
15 Priority Based Congestion Control and Bandwidth Normalisation in WBAN
Ravinder Kaur, Harmandeep Singh

Abstract
WBAN is a milestone in medical science since it makes the task of physicians easy to monitor their patients without attending them physically. WBAN is made up of small/ tiny sensors which act as nodes in the network and are responsible to perform the data transmission in the network among nodes source and sink nodes. The performance of the WBAN should be effective and reliable because it is used in real life scenarios. There are various issues that can leads to the degradation in the performance of the WBAN. Various trends had been developed in this area to enhance the efficiency of the network by considering various factors or parameters. But the not all the mandatory parameters were covered under them. In this study we proposed a graphical user interface based technique in order to consume the bandwidth of the network in an efficient way. The proposed technique works on the basis of priority of the data and the size of the data along with the size of the bandwidth. The transmission of data starts with the highly prior data and simultaneously the data with the low priority is also placed over the transmission channel along with the prior data. This paper comprises of an introductory part to the WBAN, the various issues that can decrease the performance and quality of the network. The result section is simulated by using the MATLAB and proves that the proposed outperforms the traditional work with respect to the number of dead nodes in the network, delay in the network, and number of data packets received at the base station.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-494
16 Enhancing Performance of OCDMA using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Codes
Pratishtha Agnihotri, Dr. Neelam Srivastava

Abstract
Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) is one of the competing technologies for future multiple access networks and it realised multiplexing transmission and multiple accesses by coding in the optical domain, which supports multiple simultaneous transmissions in the same time slot and the same frequency. The analysis results ascertained that the DCS code with AND detection technique can improve the system performance by reducing the MAI effect significantly. The simulation is performed by using OptiSystem Version 9.0 and found that DCS codes are more efficient in construction and application.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-495
17 Future Challenge in Chip Technology 2015 Onwards
Kuldeep Chand, Kartik Sharma, Kavita

Abstract
Each year, technology brings a wealth of advancement that could alter the future. Many of them are a long way from being viable, and some may never come to fruition, but the mere fact that each day is another chance for the world to solve the fossil fuel crisis, or cure cancer, is inspiring .In this paper Discussion of the Moore’s law in current era and for the future will be done. Discussing and challenging the technology in terms of gate length, mask marking, fab flow and variation, patterning, interconnects, etching the surface, atomic-level scaling, plasma methods etc.Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-496
18 GSM Based Home Security System
Rajani U S, Kadar A.A

Abstract
Securing a home is an indispensable task because of the burglary incidents. The conventional design of home security systems typically monitors only the property and lacks physical control aspects of the house itself. In today’s context, it is common to leave the house unattended as people are busy catching up with their tight daily schedule. Therefore, most people have chosen the home security system as the most reliable way to protect their home. All the body generates some heat energy in the form of infrared which is invisible to human eyes. But, it can be detected by electronic sensor. PIR sensors are widely applied in wireless residential security systems, home alarms systems and many more security circuits as motion detector sensors. A typical PIR sensor detects the Infrared Red (IR) waves from human body and so it is also known as ‘human sensor’. This system is very simple. And the working of this system is very simple as well. In this system PIR sensor used for sensing and then microcontroller is used for controlling purpose and a GSM module which is used for SMS and calling purpose. When anybody comes in range of PIR sensor, then sensor sends a logic signal to microcontroller and take control and perform a given task.Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-497
19 Brain Wave Controlled Robotic Arm
Yeshas Y, Lekha H. P, Belli Praveen, Jayaprakash H B, Puneeth H J

Abstract
Paralysis is one amongst the major neural disorder that causes loss of motion of one or more muscles of the body, where in depending on the cause, it may affect a specific muscle group or region of the body or a larger area may be involved. In pursuit of rehabilitation, the eye can be regarded as one of the organs that can help a paralyzed person to communicate suitably. The Brain Signals of such patients can be used to help them communicate to others and also to perform various tasks by providing necessary infrastructure and training. This project describes the acquisition and analysis of Brain signals for operating a robot having a robotic arm mounted on top of it. The proposed method here uses a minimum number of electrodes for obtaining the brain signals using EEG Headsets available in the market and then control a robot based on the levels of these brain signals which can be varied by varying the states of mind. The EEG Headset detects the signals and generates a discrete value. This value is then sent over Bluetooth to a PC/Laptop for further processing and plotting using MATLAB. After processing the actions to be performed are sent over ZIGBee to the ARM Microcontroller that controls the robot as well as the robotic arm mounted on the robot.Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-498
20 Diet Monitoring System for Bed Ridden Patients
Prof. R. R. Jain, RevatiTamboli, AnushaVartak, Nidhi Gupta

Abstract
The diet of bed ridden patients is a vital aspect to maintain and monitor their health. This includes water intake, meals and also the prescribed medication. To achieve a continuous inspection, diet monitoring system is the solution. This system will monitor the diet 24*7 and also send messages and raise alarms if a discontinuity occurs. It is achieved by a non-invasive vibration sensor which continuously collects data in analog form. The data processing is done by an embedded hardware in a wired way to the sensor. This sensor can be wore like a necklace. This system when tested, gave a count of calorie content and also the type of food consumed(i.e. liquid or solid). If no intake is detected, then a message will be sent to the emergency contacts. A database is maintained for all the registered users.Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-499
21 Representation of Quadratic Forms: A Tool for Coding and Cryptography
Ms.Chetna

Abstract
Number theory has a rich historical background. It is one of the purest areas of mathematics because of the attraction for the representation of integers. For a long time, the study of number theory was the area of pure mathematics without practical applications.It has many applications in the area of geometry, probability theory, quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The number of representations by any quadratic form depends mostly on the solution given by that particular form.The results of the present paper can be used in coding theory to code and decode information and signals for security management. Application of representation of quadratic forms in Cryptography is just one of the practical applications in computer systems.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-500
22 Optimization of Steganography on Audio Wave and Embedding Minimum and Maximum Message into Various Layers
Sachin Kumar, Sumit Dalal, Ravi Kant Kaushik

Abstract
Steganography is a sub-discipline of information hiding that focuses on concealing the existence of messages. It is the study of techniques for hiding the existence of a secondary message in the presence of a primary message. Here we embed minimum and maximum message in to the various layers of audio wave. Digital audio is stored ona computer as a sequence of 0’s and 1’s with the right tools, it is possible to change the individual bits that makeup adigital audio file. Such precise control allows changes to be made to the binary sequence that are not discernible to the human ear. In a computer-based audio steganography system, secret messages are embedded by slightly altering the binary sequence of a sound file. We propose complete steganography on wav audio files using four stages of genetic algorithm – Encryption, Modulation, Decryption and Demodulation. We can hide any text within the layer of data structure of wav files.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-501
23 Novel Terahertz Microstrip Patch Antenna Design Employing FR4 as Substrate for Detection of Riboflavin
Payal Kalra, Roopan, Ekambir Sidhu

Abstract
This paper demonstrates the design and analysis of Terahertz Microstrip Patch Antenna employing FR4 (Flame Retardant 4) as substrate material, having thickness of 1.6 μm and dielectric constant (∈r) of 4.4. The patch and ground are made up of Copper material and rectangular slot has been introduced in patch to improve the antenna parameters such as return loss, directivity, gain and bandwidth. The ground has been reduced to increase the bandwidth and gain of the antenna. The design and simulation of antenna has been carried out using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave studio (2014). The proposed antenna design has been analyzed interms of resonant frequency, return loss(S11), VSWR, gain (dB), directivity (dBi), Half Power Beam width (HPBW) and percentage bandwidth. It has been observed that the designed antenna is resonantat 4.17 THz with an impedance of 50.32 Ω. The designed antenna has return loss (S11) magnitude of -39.73dB at resonant frequency of 4.17 THz. The antenna has gain of 6.8dB and directivity of 6.4dBi at corresponding resonant frequency of 4.17THz. The proposed antenna can be used for detection of Riboflavin applications.
Full Paper
IJECT/82/1/A-502