Vol 6.3 (July – Sept 2015 AETM 2015)

 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (IJECT)-VOL 6.3, July – Sept 2015 (AETM 2015)


International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology VOL 6.3, (July – Sept 2015 AETM 2015)
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
01 Kinematic Principle of Reflex Klystron: A Necessary Revisit
B.N. Biswas, S. Chatterjee, B. Choudhury, S Guha Mallick

Abstract
Reflex Klystron (RK) is an oscillator. Like any other oscillators, it is expected that with the switching on the power supply, the oscillation should start building up either from an infinitesimally small value or from a finite value of small excitation. Thus RK can behave as either a soft-self-excited or a hard-self-excited oscillatoryet to be explored. Naturally it takes different finite durations to attain the steady state value in these two situations. Moreover, RK is not a continuous feedback oscillator but is a discrete time feedback oscillator and naturally the design of the resonator plays an important role. A new method is also adopted to calculate the spectral components of the output current waveform.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/001
02 Wireless Sensor Networks & Review of Its Different Engineering Applications
Mehak Saini, Prof. (Dr.) K. K. Saini

Abstract
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are used in variety of fields which includes military, healthcare, environmental, biological, home and other commercial applications. With the huge advancement in the field of embedded computerand sensor technology, Wireless ensor Networks (WSN), which is composed of several thousands of sensor nodes which are capable of sensing, actuating, and relaying the collected information, have made remarkable impact everywhere. This paper presents an overview of the various research issues in WSN based applications.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/002
03 Implementation of Efficient Object Detection Algorithm on FPGA
Balwinder Singh, Robin Khosla, Shashi Bala

Abstract
FPGA is most trendy for boosting image processing because of its flexibility and parallelism. An FPGA based real-time system is proposed to detect objects from color video for use in applications such as flower plucking and cotton picking. Also, a control signal is send to a control device (i.e. stepper motor) when the object detection is done. The system uses Xilinx’s Virtex-5 FPGA, a VMODCAM, 256 Mb external RAM and an HDMI screen. The object detection from video frames is accomplished by an image segmentation stage followed by a counter and comparator. The Algorithm for object detection from color video is tested on Xilinx’s Virtex-5 FPGA and is shown to provide real time performance at 30fps.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/003
04 Review on Spatial Multiplexing in Modern MIMO Systems: An Innovative Technology
Dr. Y.P.Singh, Mrs. Rakhi Sharma

Abstract
Digital communication using multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) has been regarded as one of the most significant technical reakthrough in the modern digital communication system. Beside, several different open loop MIMO systems include, to achieve diversity gain and increase the reliability of wireless links we use Spatial multiplexing (S.M.). Under suitable channel fading conditions, having both multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas (i.e., a MIMO channel) provides an additional spatial dimension for effective communication and yields a degreeof- freedom gain. These additional degrees of freedom can be exploited By spatially multiplexing (S.M.) several data streams onto the MIMO channel, and lead to an increase in the capacity: the capacity of such a MIMO channel with n transmit and receive antennas is proportional to n.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/004
05 Speech Coding Techniques: A Comparative Study
Rashmirekha Ram, Hemanta Kumar Palo, Mihir Narayana Mohanty, B.N. Sahu

Abstract
A major challengeof speech coding system is optimum utilization of channel bandwidth. To preserve bandwidth researchers have resorted to speech coders with fewer bits. Ultimately, intelligibility, SNR and overall speech quality have deteriorated. It forced speech engineers for a trade-off between different parameters affecting speech coding mechanism. To assess the impact of these parameters and their utility, a comparative analysis is performedwith different speech coding techniques.The performance analysis of these coders on a self-generatedregional oriya language have been incorporated and validated with standard English language dataset.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/005
06 Design and Development of Smart Wheel Chair Driving System and Wireless Monitoring System for Severe Disabled Person
Parampreet Singh

Abstract
Assistive technologies play a critical role in the lives of people with severe disabilities and help them to lead independent selfsupportive lives Persons severely disabled as a result of causes ranging from traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries.Generally it is extremely difficult to carry out everyday tasks without continuous help. These individuals arecompletely dependent on wheeled mobility for transportation inside and out of their homes. Many of them use electrically powered wheelchairs (PWC) that are the most helpful toolswallowing individuals to complete daily tasks with greater independence, and to access school, work, and community environments. Unfortunately, the default method for controlling PWCs is by operating a joystick control which requires a certain level of physical movement ability, which may not exist in people with severe disabilities.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/006
07 Cross Layer Interaction of PHY and a Cross Layer Design Approach for High Speed MANET
Benudhar Sahu, Mihir Narayan Mohanty, Laxmi Prasad Mishra

Abstract
Cross-Layer design is one of the approaches for performance improvement in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). Presently, each of the layers is designed to obtain optimum performance in MANET. However, this layered approach may not achieve optimum performance always. So, we discuss a cross layer design approach for improvement of performance in MANET. In this paper, we study the relationship of a couple of issues as observed in the Physical Layer of a high speed MANET with the Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing layers. Subsequently, the merits of cross layer design approach for MANET at routing layer have been considered to elucidate advantages of cross layer design approach of MANET.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/007
08 Case Study of WiMAX Technology & Its Application With Respect to Microstrip Patch Antenna
Sabita Yadav, Prof. [Dr.] K. K. Saini

Abstract
The proposed antenna in this work is designed on Rogers TMM 10i substrate with dielectric constant 10.2 and thickness of 2.9 mm. The size of antenna is compact, patch dimension 17.5 X 12.3 mm2. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR, gain and directivity are simulated and optimized using commercial computer simulation technology microwave studio (CST MWS). The return loss is about -28 dB, bandwidth is 349MHz, gain is 11.0dB, directivity is 12.4dBi and VSWR is 1.08 at the operating frequency 3.5GHz.The main advantage of this antenna is that the designed structure is very simple compared to other proposed WiMAX antennas and the cost for making this antenna is also low.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/008
09 Li-Fi, a Cleaner and Greener Communication Technology of Tomorrow in the Perspective of Developing Country
Mrs Rakhi Sharma, Dr. Y.P.Singh

Abstract
With the advent of the information communication technology, world have become a town, the demand of the technology is uprising vertically and horizontally in terms of development of the nation and its economy. Today if we look on the retails market or any other traditional and professional business or service, we find the integrated role of the communication technology, and its proportionate relationship with the business development. Service sector with the use of ICT are more profitable and tangible benefits in terms of the returns and the sustainability.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/009
10 Services and Challenges for the 5G Technology of Mobile Communication: A Review
Pavneet Kaur, Tanvir Singh, Amit Kumar

Abstract
Usage of wireless data is growing at high rates and forcing the service providers for continuous developments in wireless networks so as to provide more capacity and higher Quality of Service (QoS). Developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services, continues to grow globally so that users can be satisfied with huge number of applications with high data rates with minimal latency. 5G technology confronts the wide range of applications with energy efficient, minimal latency and highly reliable communication networks. This paper provides a brief insight into the 5G technology including European 5G Projects, Recommendations for 5G deployment and migration challenges.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/010
11 Detection of Malicious Nodes and Effective and Secured Communication in VANETs
Gunjan, Dr. Dinesh Arora, Tulika Mehta

Abstract
VANETs is a technology that provides communication between moving vehicles the network formed can be in between vehicleto- vehicle (V2V) or vehicle to infrastructure (V2I). Due to non-centralized infrastructure, self-driving and Ad-Hoc nature of VANETs it`s vulnerable to different severe attacks. The wormhole attack is one of the denial-of-service attacks that affect the communication in the network and therefore security of data becomes the significant issue. In this the attacker makes a tunnel like structure in between two nodes and forces the information to take that path where they silently drop the malicious packet. In this paper, we have studied the various threats to the VANET’s and proposed a key generation algorithm.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/011
12 Comparative Study of Different Mobile Generation Technologies and Various Challenges in Integrating 4G and 5G
Hemant Rajveer Singh, Parvinder Kaur, Neha Lekhi, Ruveena Singh

Abstract
The phenomenal growth in telecommunication industry encouraged mobile subscribersmore aware about the mobile phone technology and new inventions leading the era of mobile communication. Over the years, fastest and dynamical growth seen in global telecommunication industry greatly influenced the commonman’s mind despite requirements of common man is augmenting day by day.However,engineers and scientists are making effort in merging the modern technology in to a single platform. This paper evaluates the evolution of 5 different technologies with the passage of time and need of highest speed communication by enlighten the features of 5G technology comparing with 4thgeneration. Since wireless industry is focusing on 4Gstandards but it is obvious there will be need in advancement of 4G standardization in upcoming 2 years.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/012
13 Simulation of Probability of False Alarm and Probability of Detection Using Cyclo Stationary Detection Technique in Coginitive Radio
Tammana Mor, Dr. Dinesh Arora, Tulika Mehta

Abstract
Cognitive Radio (CR) advent in the technology which deals successfully with the growing demand and scarcity of the radio spectrum. The technique drives us the in-depth knowledge of DSA technique where reconfiguration itself is the key feature. To exploit limited spectrum efficiently, CR technology allows unlicensed users to access licensed spectrum bands obtaining reliable results enabling no interference is the main task for spectrum sensing, challenges to the implementation of CR has been discussed thoroughly including research achievements of cognitive radio.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/013
14 Hybrid Roundness Metric, Region Growing and Cellular Automata EDGE Detection for Efficient Brain Tumor Detection
Ms. Tanveer Gill, Ms. Pawandeep Kaur

Abstract
Brain tumor is one of the most life scowling diseases which need urgent and accurate detection. Various automated techniques have been designed to detect the tumor efficiently from MRI imaging. The aim of this paper is to propose a new method for increasing the efficiency of tumor detection. The proposed technique involves the integration of Hybrid Roundness Metric with the existing techniques called Modified Texture Based Region Growing and Cellular Automata Edge Detection. The two segmentation techniques perform well in collaboration but when Hybrid Roundness Metric is implemented along with the above two, results achieved are much more effectual. The detection of tumor is made easier and accurate with the proposed work.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/014
15 A Dual Band Reconfigurable Antenna for Wireless Applications
Prithvi S, Sagar M, Srujana N, Raksha K, Tanweer

Abstract
WIn this paper we have presented a novel design of reconfigurable ultra wideband microstrip patch antenna used for wireless applications. The antenna can be reconfigured for two frequencies using two switches. These switches help in changing the frequency of operation by changing the surface current distribution. When both the switches are ON, Antenna operates at two frequencies i.e. at 3.5 GHz and 5.8 GHz with a good isolation bandwidth. When the switches are OFF Antenna operates at 3.5 GHz.
Full Paper
IJECT/63/AETM 2015/015