Vol5.4-spl1 Oct-Dec 2014



International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology VOL 5.4, Spl-1
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
1 Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Loud Speaker Design Optimization
Mehak Saini, Dr. K.K Saini, Sanju Saini

Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is a swarm-based algorithm which simulates the intelligent foraging behaviour of a honeybee swarm. In this work, ABC is used for loud speaker design optimization which is a complex problem involving sixteen design variables with a constraint on the minimum value of flux density. Performance of ABC algorithm is compared with that of genetic algorithm. Results show that ABC performs better than genetic algorithm for this problem. Full Paper
2 Design and Development of Portable Power Charger: A Green Energy Initiative
Tanvir Singh, Prashant Bhardwaj, Dr. Balwinder Singh, Amit Kumar

Owing to fast growth in the world population and aspiration of people for higher standards of living, the world will need greatly increased energy supply in the coming years, especially cleanly-generated electricity. A cleaner energy future depends on the development of alternative energy technologies to meet the world’s growing energy needs. The transition to sustainable energy resources and systems provides an opportunity to address multiple environmental, economic, and development needs.
The significant advances in renewable energy technologies and associated long-term cost reductions, have paved the way for sustainable energy alternative.In this paper, we have proposed the design and development of portable power charger based on renewable energy sources for generating green energy. Full Paper
3 Chaos Embedded Optimization Algorithms: State of the Art
Sanju Saini, Dr. J.S.Saini

Recently, chaos theory has been utilized to develop novel techniques for the purpose of global optimization. These techniques have been reported to outperform the previous ones. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the chaos embedded optimization algorithms. Full Paper
4 A Hybrid Multi Focus Image Fusion Using Image Quality Assessment
M. Prema Kumar, Dr. P. Rajesh Kumar

Image fusion is a process to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion will be a new image which is more suitable for human and machine perception or further task of image processing. In this a novel image fusion method known as Hybrid image fusion is implemented using wavelet based image fusion algorithm. The images to be fused are firstly decomposed into high frequency and low frequency bands. Finally the fused image is constructed by inverse discrete wavelet transform. In this paper we focused on Hybrid image fusion by adopting Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) technique.
The experimental set up demonstrates that the proposed approach performs better in both subjective and objective quality metrics. Full Paper
5 Cognitive Radio Networks – Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with Energy Detection
Kirti Arora, T. L. Singal

In cognitive radio networks, it is desired to minimize spectrum sensing error (i.e., sum of false alarm and miss detection probabilities) since minimizing spectrum sensing error both reduces collision probability with primary user and enhances usage level of vacant spectrum. To provide reliable spectrum sensing performance, one of the major challenges is to determine threshold level since spectrum sensing performance depends on the threshold level. When determining threshold level, besides spectrum sensing error, spectrum sensing constraint which requires false alarm and miss detection probabilities to be below target level should also be considered since it guarantees minimum required protection level of primary user and usage level of vacant spectrum. In this paper, the implementation strategy for cooperative spectrum sensing with energy detection has been discussed with the objective of determining the optimal threshold level for Minimizing Spectrum Sensing Error (MSSE).Full Paper
6 Black Hole Attack in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks: A Survey
Archana Phutela, Tulika Mehta

Wireless networks are gaining popularity now days, as the users require wireless connectivity irrespective of their geographic position. There is an increasing threat of attacks on (mobile ad hoc network)MANETs. Black hole attack is a security threat in which the packet is redirected to a node that actually does not exist in the network. MANETs should have a secure way for transmitting packet or information over a network which is quite challenging and vital issue. In this paper, we simulate the Ad hoc on Demand Vector Routing Protocol (AODV) under black hole attack by considering different performance metric. The simulation results show the effectiveness of black hole attack on AODV protocol. Full Paper
7 FPGA Implementation of Switching Karatsuba Multiplier for ECC
Sunil D. Bobade, Dr.Vijay R. Mankar

Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) serves as a perfect cryptographic tool because of its shorter key sizes and security comparable to that of any other standard public key algorithms.. Several FPGA implementations have been consistently proposed for performing double point multiplication and point doubling operations for ECC driven embedded systems, with a prime focus area being space and time complexities. In this paper, we propose a novel switching modular multiplier that invokes the more efficient Karatsuba algorithm. The proposed multiplier switches between two variants of Karatsuba multiplier depending on the the size of multiplicands. The LUT efficient variant of Karatsuba algorithm ensures maximum utilization of the LUTs for the smaller bit multiplications, while the Gate efficient Karatsuba variant ensures least gate count for the larger bit multiplicands. The proposed hybrid multiplier does the initial recursion using the Gate efficient variant algorithm while final small sized multiplications are done using the LUT efficient variant algorithm. The multiplier thus obtained has the best area time product compared to reported literature. Full Paper
8 Application of Chaotic Theory for Analysis Cardic Health
Chandra Mukherjee, Dr. Prof. K.K Saini

The prevalent knowledge of the biological systems is based on the standard scientific perception of natural equilibrium, determination and predictability. Recently, a rethinking of concepts was presented and a new scientific perspective emerged that involves complexity theory with deterministic chaos theory, nonlinear dynamics and theory of fractals. The unpredictability of the chaotic processes probably would change our understanding of diseases and their management. The mathematical definition of chaos is defined by deterministic behavior with irregular patterns that obey mathematical equations which are critically dependent on initial conditions. The chaos theory is the branch of sciences with an interest in nonlinear dynamics, fractals, bifurcations, periodic oscillations and complexity. Recently, the biomedical interest for this scientific field made these mathematical concepts available to medical researchers and practitioners. Any biological network system is considered to have a nominal state, which is recognized as a homeostatic state. In reality, the different physiological systems are not under normal conditions in a stable state of homeostatic balance, but they are in a dynamically stable state with a chaotic behavior and complexity. Biological systems like heart rhythm and brain electrical activity are dynamical systems that can be classified as chaotic systems with sensitive dependence on initial conditions. In biological systems, the state of a disease is characterized by a loss of the complexity and chaotic behavior, and by the presence of pathological periodicity and regulatory behavior. The failure or the collapse of nonlinear dynamics is an indication of disease rather than a characteristic of health.Full Paper
9 Intelligent Energy Management System for Commercial Buildings: A Review
Harleen Kaur, Nidhi Gupta, Komal Bhatia

The common objective of sustainable building involves efficient usage of energy, accommodation of renewable energy, and enhancement of indoor environmental quality. The main focus is to meet occupants’ wellbeing while keeping in mind improving the energy conservation and reducing carbon footprints. Intelligent Energy Management system for Commercial Buildings is the best way to achieve sustainable buildings. Full Paper
10 Design and Development of Optical Assembly for Urine Analyzer
Akhilesh Mahajan, Heena Gulati, Vikas Goel

Analyzer is a bio-chemistry instrument calibrated to determine different chemical composition and other parameters of urine samples rapidly, with minimum number of errors. Urine samples are positioned in a stand of test tubes. The stand of test tubes is rotated through a stepper motor assembly for placing the urine samples to the desired sample position. Urine sample is quantized under standard condition. Sample is mixed with specific reagent for specific test to be done. The principle process of urine analyser is depends on the Beers and Lambert law of photochemistry. In the presented work, an analyzer is designed to opt for the filter selection through filter wheel assembly, sample aspiration through Peristaltic pump, auto-zero calibration and other related parameters to be controlled through micro-controller based hardware and software system. It is planned to automate the sample handling system to handle large no. of urine sample at a time. Full Paper
11 A Review on Free Space Optics – Solution for High Bandwidth, Data Efficient Transmission System
Rubina Dutta, Harsimranjit Kaur

This paper presents review on importance of Free Space Optics Communication (FSO) in present era. It puts an emphasis on advantages and disadvantages of the FSO Technology. A comparison on various features of Wireless transmission and FSO has been presented. Various challenges associated with FSO have been made the part of paper.. Full Paper
12 Comparative Study of Different Edge Detectors in Image Processing
Neha Lekhi

Image processing have various steps and edge detection comes under preprocessing block. Edge detection results into the pixels where intensity changes abruptly. Edge pixels are must for further operations of image processing. Full Paper
13 Pixel Based Volume Estimation of Water Bodies Using Remote Sensing and GIS
Nagaraj Bhat, Sachin S Bhat, Manumohan, K C Gouda, Jayaram CV, Nagappa U Bhajantri

Reservoir or water body conserves fresh water in a topographical landscape and is a main source of water supply for human beings. It is very much essential to keep monitoring the reservoir level at a regular interval of time to avoid many disasters like flooding damages. Since it is highly difficult to get ground based measurement of water volumes because of the unreachable location of the water bodies and it will be a problem to provide continuous supervision due to various other reasons as well. In this paper we are estimating, monitoring the amount or volume of water present in a reservoir using Remote sensing data with GIS methodologies. Water volume obtained by this method is compared with ground based observed values of a reservoir which we explained in our results nad discussions and obtained results are promising. This method is more accurate than other methods as the waterbody image is segmented into individual pixels and volume is estimated for each pixel. Full Paper
14 Algorithm for Latest Multi- Applications on Wireless Sensor Network Information Communication Industry Based Systems
Prof. (Dr.) K. K. Saini, Sanjay Kumar, Anita Yadav, Shashant, Seema

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are used in variety of fields which includes military, healthcare, environmental, biological, home and other commercial applications. With the huge advancement in the field of embedded computerand sensor technology, Wireless SensorNetworks (WSN), which is composed of several thousands of sensor nodes which are capable of sensing, actuating, and relaying the collected information, have made remarkable impact everywhere. This paper presents an overview of the various research issues in WSN based applications. Full Paper
15 Structure and Magnetic Properties of Zn1-xFexO Nanoparticles Synthesized By SOL-GEL Co-precipitation Method
Raminder Preet Pal Singh, I.S. Hudiara, Sudhakar Panday, Pushpendra Kumar

Transition metal-doped ZnO is a promising candidate for Spintronic based device applications. In this work, we studied the structural and Magnetic properties of Fe doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS). Bulk samples of Zn1-xFexO (x=0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) were synthesized using simple sol-gel co-precipitation method. Crystalline phases and Magnetic properties of samples were determined by X-ray diffraction and VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer).The average crystalline size was determined using Debye-Scherrer’s equation. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the crystal structure of samples corresponds to hexagonal wurtzite ZnO phase along with some traces of ZnFe2O3 and Fe metal.
Magnetization curve showed ferromagnetism behavior at room temperature with 1% Fe concentration. Further, it was observed that with the increase in doping concentration, ferromagnetic behavior was suppressed and Paramagnetic behavior was observed. Full Paper
16 A Comprehensive Study on Waste Management and On-Going Initiatives in India
Ruveena Singh, Parvinder Kaur

Waste management has become a rising concern due to various environmental and health implications linked with the waste. It is not only the concern of developing countries but whole nation, corporations and governments of the globe. So, there is pressing need to combat with this challenge with latest and efficient waste management strategies. This paper will discuss about the various initiative by corporate to reduce the waste along with the proposed directions to reduce waste. Full Paper
17 Power Estimation of VLSI Design: A Review
Deepali Sandhu, Simranjit Singh

Low power has emerged as a principal theme in today’s world of electronics industries. Power dissipation has become an important consideration as performance and area for VLSI Chip design. With shrinking technology reducing power consumption and over all power management on chip are the key challenges below 100nm due to increased complexity. For many designs, optimization of power is important as timing due to the need to reduce package cost and extended battery life. For power management leakage current also plays an important role in low power VLSI designs.
Leakage current is becoming an increasingly important fraction of the total power dissipation of integrated circuits. This paper describes about the various strategies, methodologies and power management techniques for low power circuits and systems. Future challenges that must be met to designs low power high performance circuits are also discussed. Full Paper
18 A Comprehensive Review on Health and Environmental Impacts of E-Waste Management with Case Study of India
Anita Kumari

This paper deal with the hazards of e-waste. The term hazardous is used because any material which can be a reason of death, an injury or birth defects of any living creature is called a hazardous. E-waste means electronic and electrical products nearing the end of their “useful life”. Milliontons of e waste is generated each year and studies have consistently shown that electronic waste from mobile phone, personal computer, digital camera and other electronic devices contain toxins that are damaging to our environment. Full Paper
19 Network Security Attacks Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks
Hiteshwer, Sanny, Ekta Sharma, Monika Chauhan, Ms Pratibha Bharti, Dr. K.K Saini

As we know in now days the wireless communication is enhancing day by day. As the technology uplifts its security challenges also become more challengeable secure and safe. In this paper we have discussed the different types of attacks in Ad-hoc wireless network in its different layers. The attacks are on different layers are briefly described. These attacks are very severe as it may damage the complete data or information. Full Paper
20 Cognitive Radio: Future of Radio Communication
Maninder Kaur

Cognitive radios are being studied intensively these days. The major motivation for this is the heavily underutilized frequency spectrum. Cognitive radio is basically the technique to reuse the unused spectrum to increase the total system capacity. In this paper I present a review on basics of cognitive radio, its enabling technology, working and areas of application. Full Paper
21 A Comprehensive Analysis of Companies Promoting Green Marketing Approaches
Sakshi Sharma, Amanpreet Kaur, Manpreet Kaur

Green Marketing is the marketing of products that are accepted to be environmentally preferable to others. It integrate a broad range of actions, including product modification, changes in the production process, sustainable packaging. Defining Green Marketing is not a simple task as several meanings traverse and challenge each other.This paper expresses the idea of green marketing, discusses the need for going green, role of companies in green marketing. Full Paper
22 Fingerprint Recognition Methods: A Review
Gaganjot Kaur, Khushdeep Singh, Jasvir Singh

The recent advances in fingerprint recognition methods and improvements in accuracy and speed of the fingerprint recognition algorithms has inspired many individuals and companies to develop researches in Fingerprint recognition and Authentication which is very useful methods of identification. Fingerprint recognition plays a major role in any large scale fingerprint recognition system. Utilizing more information is helpful for large-scale fingerprint recognition methods. A recognizable image is defined as the fingerprint image which includes the characteristics that are sufficiently discriminating an individual from other people.
although it cannot identify fingerprints correctly, it is useful in determining that two fingerprints do not match .A review on the existing fingerprint recognition classification approaches has been done in this paper. The explanation in this review paper covers various fingerprint recognition classification methods. Full Paper
23 Automatic Robo Floor Cleaner with IR Seekar
Nidhi Gupta, Komal Bhatia, Anita Kumari

This Paper deals with the robotic and automation. Robots are becoming part of people’s everyday lives and will increasingly become so. In future years, robots may become assistants for the elderly, or tutors for our children, or medical assistants, day care assistants, or psychological counsellors. Robots may become our co-workers in factories and offices, or maids in our homes. Any automatic machine which is used to reduce human work can be considered as a robot, and this field is called robotics. Robot can be design to perform different functions as per working environment and applications. Here we are explaining an intelligent domestic floor cleaner robot which does chores around and inside the home by just picking up the garbage from the floor it will reduced human efforts save time and continuous monitoring will not be required.Full Paper
24 A Survey on Wireless Sensor Network Applications
Siddhant Mehta, Jitendra Kumar, Rapaka Gopalakrishna, Prof. (Dr.) K. K. Saini

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are used in variety of fields which includes military, healthcare, environmental, biological, home and other commercial applications. With the huge advancement in the field of embedded computer and sensor technology, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), which is composed of several thousands of sensor nodes which are capable of sensing, actuating, and relaying the collected information, have made remarkable impact everywhere. This paper presents an overview of the various research issues in WSN based applications. Full Paper
25 A Review on Challenges of E-Waste Management in India
Kamalpreet Singh

Increasing urbanization and improving quality of life result into consumption of electronic materials. The cut throat competition between electronic product manufacturers results into advancement of products and results into increase number of obsolete e-products.
These waste electronic products result into e-waste, which is a big challenge of 21stcentury. India which is a developing nation is a market of used electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) which came from developed countries like USA, EU. These EEE are nothing more than a waste and there is no formal recycling or treatment techniques are available in India. This is due to the fact that Basel convention lacks the proper definition of shipment of e-waste. The second reason is the gap between and implementation of laws in India and the third reason is lack of awareness and social sections in India. The recycling may be done by informal sectors in India where the e-waste is recycled by mostly uneducated workers who are hired on low wages and they do their work manually which result into hazardous by-products lead to dangerous health problems among them. Full Paper
26 End to End Location Based Services Solution
Kanwar Parneet Singh Khurmi, Ramneek Kaur

Gone are the days when location was a feature only of interest to mobile operators. Industry trends towards fixed/mobile and private/public application convergence are transforming location into an all-round service enabler, which drives the usage rate of value added applications across mobile, fixed, enterprise and vertical markets. Coordinating positioning requets from a common location server across public(mobile & fixed) and private access environments is seen as the most appropriate model to successfully address location-based services from a user-centric perspective in tomorrow’s fixed/mobile converged world. Due to the enormous diversity of location-based applications, a wide range of positioning methods has emerged, each with varying levels of positioning accuracy. This paper explains technical architecture to support end-to-end location-based services solutions across mobile, fixed, enterprise and vertical markets. The supported mobile, fixed and wireless positioning technologies are analyzed. Full Paper