Vol 5.3-2 Jul-Sep2014



International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology Vol 5.3-2
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
28 Segmentation Using DOG Filter and Feature Extraction of Microcalcification Using Cocurrence Matrix
Praveen Kumar Malviya, Abhinav Bansal

The most effective method for an early diagnosis or detection of Breast Cancer is Mammography. It is sensitive to clustered microcalcifications which are the main characteristic of early breast tumors. This paper introduces an efficent algorithm for extracting features of these mamograms. In this proposed paper, we have adopted an edge based detection technique using Difference of Gaussian Filter (DOG Filter) for segmentation and GLCM features are determined for classifications. The results show that the proposed Wavelet Transform algorithm yields significantly 1.24% of classification accuracy over Top Hat Transform.. Full Paper

29 Enhancement of Impedance-Bandwidth of an Ultra-Wideband Monopole Microstrip Antenna With a Metallic Grounded Strip
Ramaprosad Chatterjee, Partha Pratim Sarkar, Indranath Sarkar

A monopole microstrip antenna with a grounded strip on the patch plane is presented for Ultra-wideband applications. Rectangular radiating patch with corner cut is fed by 50Ω microstrip line through a coupling transformer. A ground shorted metallic strip adjacent to and on the patch plane suitably controls the lower cut off frequency of the impedance-bandwidth (S11 < -10dB). The overall antenna dimension is 30mm X 30mm. Measured -10 dB impedance bandwidth of 9.2GHz (2.59 GHz to 11.79 GHz) satisfies FCC rule [6] for Ultra-wideband system. Full Paper

30 Low Power Clock Gated Master Slave Single Edge Triggered Flip-Flop
Imran Ahmed Khan, Mirza Tariq Beg

In this work, nine existing master slave single-edge-triggered flipflops have been explored in 130nm process node and one master slave clock gated single-edge-triggered flip-flop is proposed. These existing and proposed flip-flops are compared on the bases of power consumption and propagation delay. The variations of power performance with supply voltage and data activity have been studied. All simulations are performed on TSpice using BSIM 3v3 models in 130 nm CMOS technology. Simulation results interpret that proposed flip-flop design excels rival designs in terms of total power dissipation for all data activities except 100% data activity. The proposed flip-flop is more suitable for low input data activities and when input is idle. Full Paper

31 Half toned Image Secrete Sharing Using Visual Cryptography by 2 x 2 Blocks Replacement Methodology
Kapil Avasthy, Rakesh Bairathi

Visual Cryptography is secret sharing scheme which increase confidentiality and availability. This paper proposes a new algorithm technique of half toned image by 2*2 block replacement methodology which manages the size of share image and recovered image as same without pixel expansion. Also the new share generation scheme is used for each number of counts of number of black or white pixels. Full Paper

32 Removal of Noise From Stationary and Non Stationary Cardiac Signals by Constrained Stability Least Mean Square Algorithm
Shaik Dastagiri, K.Sarada

Adaptive filter is a primary method to filter ECG signal, because it does not need the signal statistical characteristics. In this paper we present a novel adaptive filter for removing the artifacts from ECG signals based on Constrained Stability Least Mean Square (CSLMS) algorithm. This algorithm is derived based on the minimization of the squared Euclidean norm of the difference weight vector under a stability constraint defined over the posteriori estimation error. The adaptive filter essentially minimizes the mean-squared error between a primary input, which is the noisy ECG, and a reference input, which is either noise that is correlated in some way with the noise in the primary input or a signal that is correlated only with ECG in the primary input. Different filter structures are presented to eliminate the diverse forms of noise. Finally, we have applied this algorithm on ECG signals from the MIT-BIH data base and compared its performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the CSLMS based algorithm is superior to that
of the LMS based algorithm in noise reduction Full Paper

33 Reduction in Energy Consumption of Sensor Nodes Using Duty Cycle and Network Coding in Wireless Sensor Networks
Dhanashri V. Ambekar, Amol D. Bhoi, Dr. R. D. Kharadkar

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of spatially distribute dautonomous sensor nodes. These sensor nodes communicate not only with each other but also with a base station using their wireless radios. Typically sensor nodes are powered through batteries. So the energy constraints on sensor nodes are very strict. In WSN, density of nodes around sink which is bottleneck zone is greater than remaining area. Due to heavy traffic around sink energy consumption in bottleneck zone is large. To increase the lifetime of network efforts should be made to minimize energy consumption by nodes in bottleneck zone. In this paper energy efficiency of the bottleneck zone have been increased by using duty cycle, network coding and combinations of duty cycle and network coding. Energy utilization in bottleneck zone for multi hop network coder sensor can also be determined by using this approach. Total number of packets received from particular nodes to the sink has been estimated by using network coding for single hop as well as for multi hop communication. Full Paper

34 Microwave Dielectric Ceramics From Application Point of View : A Review
Gurdanish Singh

Dielectric ceramics are becoming more and more important in this era of technology. These materials find a wide range of applications from wireless communication (including mobile communication, ultra high speed local area networks, intelligent transport system and satellite communication) to consumer electronic products. A lot of research has being done in this field since last 40 years. The purpose of this review paper is to summarize the scattered data in a collected form. This would help the future researchers to have an easy approach towards these ceramics. Full Paper

35 Optical Fiber Fabrication: An Overview
Navneet Kaur, Pranav Sharma, Jasdeep Kaur

Fiber-opticcommunication has played a major role in revolutionizing the telecommunication industry. Because of its advantages over electrical transmission, optical fibers have largely replaced the copper wire communication in the developed world. Fibers form the basis of optical communication and there are many techniques for fabricating them. This paper investigates, discusses and compares the different processesof fiberfabrication, along with their advantages. Also, various types of fiber cables have been discussed. Full Paper

36 Iris Recognition: A Review
Er. Kunal Pubby, Gurdanish Singh

The purpose of this paper is to explore a new emerging verification and authentication biometric technique known as “IRIS RECOGNITION”. This technique is reliable and hence, becoming popular. This paper is going to give a generalized view of this technique. Various algorithms were given by various scientists about different steps of this authentication process are briefly discussed in the paper. The purpose of this paper is to summarize those various algorithms. Full Paper

37 Detection of Defect in Pharmaceutical Tablet Using Euler’s Function
Huvaida Manzoor, Hartej Singh Dadhwal

Medicines have helped to make our lives easy. Drug industry is developing industry in terms of production as well as consumption. Medication has become very important in everyone’s life as we are affected by many diseases. But these medicines might be defected, tablets may be broken, there may be cracks, holes and consumption of these drugs might be dangerous. This paper shows method of digital image processing technique to find the defect in tablet. Full Paper

38 Synthesis of Smart Antenna Array Using Different Adaptive Algorithms
Somnath Patra, Biswajit Mahanty

This paper presents a brief outline about smart or adaptive antenna array system which is consist of an array of antenna elements with signal processing ability which is optimized using two distinct adaptive algorithms Least Mean Square (LMS) and Simple Matrix Inversion (SMI) [5]. The LMS is a gradient based approach. LMS algorithm uses the estimates of gradient vector from the given data. LMS incorporates an iterative procedure that makes successive corrections to the weight vector in the negative direction of the gradient vector which eventually leads to the minimum MSE. SMI is a time average estimate for the array correlation matrix using K-time samples. These algorithms have been simulated in MATLAB 7.0.1 (R14) version where we visualize the change between the desired signal and array output to obtain the optimum solution. Full Paper

39 FPGA Implementation of Quadrature Mirror Filter in Performance of Adaptive Equalizers in Wireless Communication Channel
A.Swetha, Prof. S. Jagadeesh, K.Chaitanya Kumar

In this decade the wireless communication technologies are expected to grow multifold and spreading its usage in all communication segments. The latest processing techniques are enabling the communication system to work with longer distances, with less energy per bit. The channel equalization is an important
step in all most all wireless communication receiver designs. The Quadrature Mirror Filter (QMF) basically is a parallel combination of a High Pass Filter (HPF) and Low Pass Filter (LPF), which performs the action of frequency subdivision by splitting the signal spectrum into two spectra. By this QMF finds wide applications in many signal processing tasks such as transmultiplexing, equalizing wireless communication channels; subband coding of speech and image signals, sub-band acoustic echo cancellation etc. Full Paper

40 Analysis of Polyphase Filtering and FFT in FBMC Transceiver
Ramesha M., Dr. T.Venkata Raman

The OFDM is the novel technology for multicarrier broadband communications. The OFDM technique is undesired solution for filling the spectrum holes in cognitive radios. The poor frequency spectra of subcarrier signals in OFDM are the main source of problems that limit the applicability of OFDM in some present and future development of broadband communication systems. FBMC is a novel method that resolves most of these problems by taking a filtering approach to multicarrier communications.In this paper we are reviewing the previous polyphase filtering and FFT and IFFT Techniques in multicarrier communication system and mainly analyzing the Polyphase filtering and FFT in FBMC Transceiver. Full Paper

41 Energy Salvation Using Fusion Technique for Multi Focus Images in Visual Sensor Networks
Mehrummeet Singh, Silky Khurana

This paper presents a simple and proficient multi-focus image fusion scheme unambiguously designed for wireless visual sensor systems equipped with resource constrained, battery motorized image sensors employed in surveillance, perilous environment like battlefields etc. The intention of image fusion is to combine all the information from multiple images of the same scene in order to deliver only the useful information. Here the fusion of multi-focus images is based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain in which we used the adaptive histogram equalization filter to conserve the energy consumption of wireless sensor network. The proposed method overcomes the computation and energy limitation of low power devices and is investigated in terms of image quality and computation energy. Simulations and results of the technique are performed using the Matlab. The experimental results authenticate the significant efficiency improvement of the proposed method in output quality, energy consumption and time saving in real-time systems, when we compared with other fusion techniques. Full Paper

42 Slotted Patch Antenna Loaded with Split Ring Resonator for Application in X band
Priyanka, Danvir Mandal

In this work a three different antenna design have been investigated. In which first include the simple patch, then we changed the design in wine glass shaped slotted patch antenna that is second design and the third one is modified into D spanner slot patch antenna. The performance of Patch Antenna with and without using the SRR structure is analyzed. Antenna parameters such as Return Loss, Gain and bandwidth are measured. The gain of structure V that is D spanner slot with srr rings has been improved in comparison with other designs. The gain for this design has been improved from 6 dB to18.6656 dB. By using different slot in patch geometry satisfactory results has been obtained. Purposed antenna covers the wide ranges of the bands that are 8.6-8.9 GHz, 9.6- 10.5 GHz, 14.6-15.2 GHz and 16.1-16.6 GHz. This covers the most of the applications that lies in X band and Ku band for communication. Full Paper

43 Design and Implementation of PLC Controllers For Different Engineering Applications
R. Narendra Rao, Dr. V .Ganesh

Industrial Process Automation Control have occupied and indispensable position in modern day technology revolutions. It is necessary to bring more and more machines on the factory floor under centralized supervision and ensures greater accuracy and quality in product delivery has concentrated to introduce for computers, microprocessors and microcontroller and also combinations being used widely. In this paper the system continuously monitors the 8-machine status, which is working on AC voltages to monitor electrical machines as per the requirement. The controller software is written in such a way that it controls the 8-machines at a time logically depending on different input conditions from other machines. The complete analysis of the systems is designed by the general purpose PCB and software Assembly programming or C-51(complier) used. This developed hard ware is tested on real time electrical machines and the results are validated. It is observed that the hard ware results are very near to the real control applications on the example electrical machine. Full Paper

44 Priority Traffic Controlling System
Samved Singh, Aniket Singh, Aditya Sharma, Abhishek Nain

The main objective of this project is to control the traffic lights based on the density of the vehicle. If the traffic density is high on particular side then more priority is given for that side. The sensors continuously keep sensing density on all sides and the green signal is given to the side on priority basis, where the sensors detect high density or an ambulance or a fire truck. The side with next priority level follows the first priority level. The setup can be deployed at a crossing or a junction where all the roads are provided with an array of sensors which are centrally connected to a microcontroller which will in turn control the traffic lights and control the signals based on the inputs. Full Paper

45 Bandwidth Enhancement and Size Reduction of Microstrip Antenna by Using EBG Cells
Savita.M.S, Vani R.M, Prashant R.T, Hunagund P.V

This article presents a rectangular microstrip antenna with star EBG cells on the ground plane. The large enhancement in bandwidth of 87.22 and increase in bandwidth of 15.64dB gain is obtained by loading the star Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) cells on the ground plane of the conventional Microstrip antenna. With the proposed design, a maximum size reduction of 80.83% in the antenna is obtained with respect to the conventional rectangular microstrip antenna. Full Paper

46 Built-In Generation of Functional Broadside Tests Using a Fixed Hardware Structure
D.Syed Basha, D.D.DeviSasikala

In this proposed method we are test the one combinational circuit. Here this combinational circuit having 36-bit input and 7-bit output. ISCAS-85 C432 27-channel interrupt controller is a combinational benchmark circuit.This paper described an on-chip test generation method for functional broadside tests. The hardware was based on the application of primary input sequences initial from a known reachable state, thus using the circuit to produce additional reachable states. Random primary input sequences were changed to avoid repeated synchronization and thus yield varied sets of reachable states. The hardware structure was simple and fixed, and it was tailored to a given circuit only through the following parameters: the length of the LFSR used for producing a random primary input sequence; the length of the primary input sequence; the specific gates used for modifying the random primary input sequence; the particular gate used for selecting applied tests; and the seeds for the LFSR. With the proposed on-chip test generation method, the circuit is used for generate reachable states for the duration of test application. This alleviates the want to compute reachable states offline. Full Paper

47 A Novel Implementation of Interpolation Based Chase BCH Decoder Using VHDL
K.Gnanendra Prasad, Y.Murali Mohan Babu

During the transmission of the data, there will be a noise and other impairments in the channel.Due to this the data gets corrupted in the communication medium.To get the original Data at receiver end there is a need of Error-Correction Codes.These are the codes used to correct the errors occurred during the transmission of the data in the unreliable communication media. These codes add the redundancy bits to the data being transmitted so that even if some errors occur due to noise in the channel, the data can be correctly received at the destination end.Bose, Ray- Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem (BCH) codes are one of the error-correcting codes. The BCH decoder consists of four blocks namely syndrome block, IBM block, chien search block and error correction block. This paper describes a new method for error detection in syndrome and chien search block of BCH decoder. The proposed syndrome block is used to reduce the number of computation by calculating the even number syndromes from the corresponding odd number syndromes. Full Paper

48 Design of Secure and Detect Scan-Based Attacks on Secure-IC’s by using On-Chip Comparison
N. Sai Akhil, M. Chithra

Scan based testing is one of the most used and influential test method since it provides full observability and controllability of the core nodes of the IC. It has been previously verified that scan chains introduced for hardware testability open a back door to possible attacks. Here, a scan-protection method that gives testing facilities both at manufacture time and over the course of the circuit’s life. The methods to scan-in both input vectors and expected answers and to compare expected and actual answers within the circuit. From a security point of view, the disadvantage of such testability abilities is that using scan in secure chip, for instance in a cryptographic one, may seriously decrease the security level so that it makes this method not acceptable. Some
countermeasures have been proposed in order to secure the scan technique. In this paper we present we do not give the estimated outputs. But in the scan circuit to generate the estimated values by using TPG. Full Paper

49 Near Optimal Cross-talk Cancellation using Adaptive LMS Filtering Technique in VDSL
Monika Yadav, Sanjeev Dhull

Crosstalk is a major cause to achieve high data-rates in VDSL systems. It is the factor which affect the whole signal by mixing of the two or more unwanted signal. It is a major source which degrade the whole performance in VDSL. A VDSL technology is used to transfer the high speed data rate between two or more
central office and customer premises. A major cause that hinders the increase in data-rate through the twisted-pair line is near-end crosstalk between the adjacent twisted pairs. Adaptive filtering technique with LMS is used to cancel the cross-talk. The adaptive filter is used to cancel every possible NEXT (near end cross-talk) signal from the other twisted pair. In this paper, transmission lines are used as twisted pair to transmit the signal and capacitor coupling is deployed to produce the crosstalk in the transmission lines.A Simulink model is designed to describe the VDSL with transmission line as twisted-pair and NEXT typeof cross-talk is introduced for the mixing of signal.. Full Paper

50 Design of a Chair Monitoring System Based on Tongue Movements for People Suffering With Disabilities
G.Akhila Goud, C.Sateesh Kumar Reddy

Tongue Drive System is a tongue-operated unobtrusive wireless assisted technology, which can potentially provide people with severe disabilities with effect- ive computer access and control environment. It translates user’s intention into control commands by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motion utilizing a small permanent magnet, positioned on the tongue. Full Paper

51 Fundamental of Electron Transport in Semiconductor: A Review
S. Chakraborty, A. Biswas, A Ghosal, S. Majumder, A. K. Bhattacharjee

This paper is concerned with the basic formulae necessary for the calculation of semiconductor transport parameters. The band structure is first considered, the Boltzmann equation formalism is then given together with the expressions for the collision operators.
The effects of band non-parabolicity, overlap integral, electron screening and degeneracy of the distribution function are included. Different lattice scattering mechanisms, electron drift mobility at small fields and numerical methods for mobility calculation are discussed in detail. Full Paper

52 Productive Lossy Image Compression Procedure Focused Around Seam Identification and SPIHT Coding
Annapurna Busi, G.Srujan, Mohammed Imaduddin

The project proposes the seam primarily based on economical compression. In mobile multimedia system communications, image retargeting is mostly needed at the user end. However, content-based image retargeting is with high machine quality and isn’t appropriate for mobile devices with restricted computing power.
The work conferred during this paper addresses the increasing demand of signal delivery to terminals with discretionary resolutions, while not serious machine burden to the receiving end. During this paper, the principle of seam carving is incorporated into a wave codec (i.e., SPIHT). For every input image, blockbased seam energy map is generated within the pel domain and therefore the whole number wave rework (IWT) is performed for the retargeted image. These are encoded in keeping with the resultant seam energy map. Experimental results show that, the retargeted images shows better PSNR and MSE values as well as good compression ratios without loss of data. Full Paper

53 Non-Linear Acoustic Echo Cancellation Using Volterra Filter
Praveen Siwach, Dr. Sanjeev Dhull

A nonlinear acoustic echo cancellation setup using a second order Volterra filter is proposed in this paper. The main problem that we face in voice communication is the echo which arises because of low cost nonlinear hardware components like loudspeaker, microphone etc. The output of loudspeaker travels through different paths and mixes with the signal at the far end after some delay. The proposed work uses the Volterra filter with LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm for cancelling out the undesired echo.
A replica of the near end signal is created and this is subtracted from the microphone signal to obtain the echo free speech signal at the output . The performance of the algorithm is compared in terms of Echo Return Loss Enhancement (ERLE) for different values of leakage coefficients. Full Paper

54 Multi Wavelet Based Satellite Image Enhancement Using Edge Preserving Filter
A. Sravanthi, G.Srujan, Mohammed Imaduddin

Resolution and contrast are the two important attributes of an image. In this paper we developed a method to enhance the quality of the given image. The enhancement is done both with respect to resolution and contrast. The proposed technique uses Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT).To increase the contrast; the proposed method uses DWT, SVD and TOP-HAT filtering techniques.
Discrete wavelet transform decompose the given image into four sub-bands, out of which one is of low frequency and the rest are of high frequency. The low frequency bands are enhanced by SVD process and high frequency bands are enhanced by TOPHAT filtering. To increase resolution; the proposed method using bi-cubic interpolation for sub bands which are formed after DWT process applied on image. The experimental results show that proposed technique gives good results over conventional methods for both colour and gray scale images. Full Paper

55 Gender Recognition From Face Images With Local WLD Descriptor
K.Vijaya Mohan Reddy, K.Sudhakar, T.Chakrapani, H.Devanna4

In various biometric applications, gender recognition from facial images plays an important role. In this paper, we investigate Weber’s Local Descriptor (WLD) for gender recognition. WLD is a texture descriptor that performs better than other similar descriptors but it is holistic due to its very construction. We extend it by introducing local spatial information; divide an image into a number of blocks, calculate WLD descriptor for each block and concatenate them.
This spatial WLD descriptor has better discriminatory power. Spatial WLD descriptor has three parameters. Through a large number of experiments performed on FERET database, we report the best combination of these parameters and that our proposed spatial WLD descriptor with simplest classifier gives much better accuracy i.e. 99.08% with lesser algorithmic complexity than state-of-the-art gender recognition approaches. Full Paper

56 Acoustic Echo Cancellation From Vocoder Using Adaptive Filter
Pardip Kumar, Dr. Sanjeev Dhull

An architecture is proposed in this particular design which is capable of cancelling acoustic echo which is generated in the process of “synthesis of voice from Vocoder”.
Echo is generated from loudspeaker (of Vocoder) as well as the surrounding noise which tries to mix with the voice signal at the microphone and degrade the performance of Vocoder. We are using an Adaptive filter (Chebyshev) filter to cancel this undesired echo signal at the final output. Our whole design is implemented on Mat lab. Full Paper

57 Ultra Wideband Microstrip-Line Fed Printed Monopole Antenna with Band-Notched Characteristic
Subhashis Bhattacharyya, Partha Pratim Sarkar, Indranath Sarkar

A microstrip line-fed bevelled (corner cut) rectangular patch with an inverted U slot and modified ground plane with a rectangular slot exhibits Ultra-Wideband (UWB) with band notched characteristics to prevent interference due to the coexisting WLAN systems (5.15- 5.825 GHz) is presented. Dimension of the inverted U shaped slot on the radiating patch controls band notched characteristic. The measured results show 2.56-11.08 GHz impedance-bandwidth with a notch (5.35-5.98 GHz) in the WLAN band. The antenna shows good radiation performances. Full Paper

58 Reactive Power Compensation in Transmission Lines Using Static Var Compensator by Simulation in ETAP
Tamojit Chakraborty

The study of shunt connected Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device is a connected field with the Reactive Power Compensation and the better mitigation of transmission in Power Systems. The FACTS technology based on Power Electronics devices is used to enhance existing transmission capabilities in order to make the Power Systems network more flexible with independent operation thus increasing the power transfer capability.
[1] Static VAR Compensator (SVC) is one of the shunt connected FACTS device, which can be utilized for the purpose of reactive power compensation. This paper attempts to simulate the distribution network substation by introducing SVC at the load ends using the Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP) environment. A comparative study is made before and after using the FACTS device and subsequent results have been shown. Full Paper

59 Comparison of Adiabatic and Transmission Gate Logic
Gurpreet Kaur, Jasdeep Kaur

The main and highly concerned issue in the low power VLSI design circuits is Power dissipation. The basic approaches that we used for reducing energy/power dissipation in conventional CMOS circuits include reducing the supply voltages, on decreasing node capacitances and minimize the switching activities with efficient charge recovery logic.
The Adiabatic switching technique based upon the energy recovery principle is one of the techniques which is widely used to achieve low power VLSI design circuits. In the following paper the power dissipation of various adiabatic circuits is calculated and then simulated using T-SPICE tool. Full Paper

60 Organic Light Emitting Diode: An Emerging Technology
Pranav Sharma, Navneet Kaur, Jasdeep Kaur

Organic technology is playing a major role in advancing the electronics industry. Unlike conventional inorganic conductors and semiconductors, organic electronic materials are constructed from organic (carbon-based) small molecules or polymers using synthetic strategies developed in the context of organic and polymer chemistry. OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) is a vital component of organic devices. This paper investigates and discusses the working of OLED, its different types along with its advantages. It also, throws light on the future aspects of this emerging technology. Full Paper

61 A Simple E-Shaped Broadband Microstrip Antenna With Different Geometries of Ground Plane
Dr. L. Lolit Kumar Singh, K. Monica Chanu, K. T. Rakshana, S. Yasmin

Simple co-axial fed E-shaped broadband microstrip antennas with different cuts on their ground planes are proposed in this paper. The proposed antennas are found to have much broader (-10dB) impedance bandwidths as compared to other reference antennas mentioned in this article.
The impedance bandwidth achieved for the proposed E-shaped patch antenna with regular ground plane is about 39.56%, with an average gain of about 7.82 dBi over the entire band of operation, and peak gain of 8.78 dBi. Air substrate of thickness 5mm is used and the antenna is single layer, with single feed and is also simple in structure. The introduction of different slots on the ground planes of the proposed antennas, the (-10 dB) impedance bandwidth upto 57.49% can be obtained Full Paper

62 Microstrip Patch Antenna with Square Slots and Orthogonal Slits for RFID Applications
Charu Sharma, Ritu Gupta

A square slotted, orthogonal slits microstrip patch antenna is proposed for Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) handheld reader applications. Two unequal square slots are cut on the square patch radiator. Four slits are also cut on the orthogonal axes of the square patch.
These slots and slits provide the size reduction with circular polarization. The simulated resonant frequency of antenna is 913.7MHz.The simulated 10dB return loss bandwidth is 25.2MHz (905.5-930.7MHz). The simulated 3dB axial ratio bandwidth is 6.6MHz (918.1-924.7MHz). The overall size of antenna is 70 × 70 × 4.572mm3. Full Paper

63 Performance Analysis of SAC-OCDMA with DCS Code
Pratishtha Agnihotri, Dr. Neelam Srivastava

Telecommunication systems were expected to provide reliable, affordable, flexible, efficient services and must possess substantial information carrying capacity in order to meet the increasingly high user’s expectations. Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) is one of the competing technologies for future multiple access networks and it realised multiplexing transmission and multiple accesses by coding in the optical domain, which supports multiple simultaneous transmissions in the same time slot and the same frequency. Dynamic cyclic shift codes were more flexible in selecting the code length with variable cross correlation and increasing of the number of users did not need the increase in weight value. They were efficient in terms of performance , easy in construction and were free from suffering of MAI noise. Full Paper

64 Pcell Using DIDO Technology
Dhaval Gandhi, Jay Karmarkar, Anushree Gawde

In this paper, we aim to study Pcell using DIDO technology. In cellular networks; a tower transmits a radio signal creating a cell. In traditional cellular systems, care has to be taken in order to avoid interference between adjacent cells. Cell tower capacity is shared among mobile devices. The main problem with a conventional network is that the number of users is limited. With the growing number of devices and increased data demands, cell service can degrade. Distributed-Input-Distributed-Output (DIDO) wireless technology is a new approach to multiuser wireless that allows the number and density of users in the same area to be increased while the spectrum allocation to all users remains the same.
There is no degradation in data rate and all users can use full spectrum available in the network. As opposed to a conventional
network, DIDO aims to utilize interference between cells to give full spectrum usage. Full Paper

65 Dusk to Dawn Sensor Based Solar Power Water Purification and Security System for Swimming Pool and Small Ponds
Krunal M. Patel, Mohammad Nadimkhan H.Pathan, Darshankumar C. Dalwadi

The objective of this paper is to purify and sterilize the water of swimming pool & small ponds. Moreover we also include the safety and security aspects in swimming pool and small ponds.
In safety aspect we use sterilizing and ionization device in which water can be sterilized and ionized by means of killing all the form of bacteria and fungi. Due to the proposed algorithm Algae’s will not be form in water and finally water contained in the swimming pool and pond becomes clean. In security aspect we used the sensor unit, siren, alarm, light and Global System for Mobile module. As far as security aspect concerned, in proposed algorithm as human or any precious object will fall in swimming pool or pond, the sensor unit will sense the motion and it will sends the signals to the alarm and siren unit. In this paper we have developed dusk to dawn sensor which is useful to enable solar charger controller.
Using dusk to dawn sensor circuit we can on the solar charger in the day time. Meanwhile in the night time solar charger provide required power supply to the all sensor unit, siren unit and GSM module. Ultimately GSM module will also become active and we can receive the status of the swimming pool or pond in terms of any other activity in our mobile unit. Full Paper

66 Space Optimized VLSI Multiplier for Embedded System Security
Sunil D. Bobade, Dr. Vijay R. Mankar

Modular multiplication, point multiplication, point doubling are critical activities to be carried out in ECC algorithm, without compromising on security and without burdening space and time complexities. In this paper, we propose a revised space optimized multiplier that implements the efficient Karatsuba algorithm in altogether novel style to be used in ECC architecture. The proposed algorithm uses a novel technique of splitting input operands based on exponent’s parity and it eventually helps in reducing space complexity by 8%, prime concern and benchmark for any embedded system.Full Paper

67 Design of Mobile Integrated Smart Car Parking
BhanuSri Tumma, Prabhakara Rao Kapula

The Current paper presents a design and prototype implementation of a splendid multistoried car parking approach to fit the needs of a next generation. The design is generally implemented with a PIC Controller which receives inputs from many devices such as RFID Reader, IR Sensors, GSM Module etc. Once the inputs are received by the PIC Controller, a program embedded in the processer will process the same and will make the output devices such as LCD Monitor, DC Motor Drives, Real-time Clock, Central Lift Motor etc. to respond appropriately.
The System is designed to fit the current car parking traffic which is expected to increase exponentially. The presented model is an advanced version when compared to the existing models as this PIC controller is even designed to send a request to the central server which deducts the money from the users account for the specified parking period. The prototype presented here contains a 3 vertical floors with a central lift to move the car to nearest empty parking floor and once the lift reaches the corresponding floor the slot conveyer belt will be activated to move the car from lift to the respective slot. As mentioned earlier the input and the output devices with orchestra in a programmed fashion. A real time clock present in the system will help us to find the duration for which the car is parked and the same will be used to by the ecommerce system running on the central system to deduct the amount from the users account. The amazing feature which the system is embedded with GSM SIM 900 modules which will respond to a user’s request by replying back with details related to the available slots. Thus, one can say the proposed model provides a closed loop mechanism making it an efficient, reliable and transparent system to resolve the current issues related to parking in the commercial arena.Full Paper

68 A Low Power XOR Gate Design Using MTCMOS Technique
Vijay Mann, Kuldeep Singh

The designing of high performance VLSI circuits has an issue of power consumption. There are many low power techniques used in VLSI circuits to reduce the power consumption. In this paper an 8T XOR cell has been simulated at certain temperature range at low voltage supply. The low voltage supply results in desired low power consumption and full output swing. In this paper XOR logic simulation has been done for the comparison of XOR logic with and without MTCMOS logic. The design with MTCMOS technique gives results with less power consumption using 45 nm technology on Tanner EDA Tool version 14.1.Full Paper

69 GPS Satellite Position Error Analysis for Precise Navigation Application
G Sateesh Kumar, G Sasi Bhushana Rao

The success of satellite navigation in the mass consumer market will depend greatly on its performance in deep urban and indoor environments. The current Global Positioning System (GPS) absolute positioning is not providing sufficiently accurate position estimate for precise surveying, mapping, or hydrographic positioning and it is in the order of 10 to 30 m in the horizontal direction. Positions of satellites are computed by the receiver from parameters of trajectories (ephemeris) that are transmitted by each satellite in the navigation message which contains satellite ephemeris errors. These orbital errors present in the prediction of a satellite position may translate into the computed user’s position through the navigation data transmitted at 50bps. This paper describes errors in position values for accurately decoded and inaccurately decoded values of Orbital parameters like inclination Angle i0, mean anomaly M0, and right ascension of ascending node Ω0. It is observed that a small variation (0.12%) in the Orbital parameters results a large error ( ≈ 2000 meters) in the X, Y and Z coordinates of receiver position. This helps in precise position estimation of receiver by decoding the navigation data from the received satellite signal. This error analysis provides precise navigation in urban canyons and indoor environment applications. The Orbital parameters errors are validated with the data collected from a newly installed dual frequency GPS receiver (Nova Tel make DLV3) at Andhra University College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam (17.720 N/ 83.220 E ).Full Paper

70 Overview of Antennas on Flexible Substrates
Bouchta HAJJINE, Christophe ESCRIBA, Jean-Yves FOURNIOLS

Recently, flexible electronic systems have gained attention to be used in several domains like displays, RFID tags, tracking devices, and other applications due to their specific characteristics. These flexible modules are based on the use of different types of antennas to ensure wireless communication
and data transmission.
This paper presents an overview of flexible antennas design and their fabrication processes.Full Paper

71 Design and Implementation of System Generator Based DA-DCT for Image Compression Technique
Narala Sarika, Sanjay Dubey, D. Naga poornima

A digital image bitmap can contain considerably large amounts of data causing exceptional overhead in both computational complexity as well as data processing. Storage media has exceptional capacity; however, access speeds are typically inversely proportional to capacity. A compressed image consumes less storage space. The bandwidth required is also less compared to uncompressed data. Hence there is a need of image compression mechanism. To meet the differing needs of many applications, the JPEG standard includes lossy compression (DCT based).
The acronym JPEG stands for the Joint Photographic Experts Group. Grayscale image compression uses 2-D DCT, quantization and entropy coding. In this paper architecture for 2D-DCT is implemented by using VHDL language. The filtering process of DCT is done by using VHDL coding by using MATLAB DCT coefficients. Input and output images can be observed through system generator. Tools & h/w used: MATLAB and Xilinx ISE, Xilinx system generator, Xilinx FPGA board (Spartan 6).Full Paper

72 Dynamic Cluster Based VANET Using 3G Network
Katarapu Srinivas, H. Shravan Kumar

Clustering in vehicular adhoc networks (VANET) is one of the management schemes accustomed creating VANET global topology less dynamic. Several of the VANET clustering algorithms area unit derived from mobile adhoc networks (MANET). However, VANET nodes area unit characterized by their high quality, and therefore the existence of VANET nodes within the same geographic proximity doesn’t mean that they exhibit identical quality patterns.
Therefore, VANET clustering schemes ought to take into think the degree of the speed distinction among neighboring nodes to produce comparatively stable cluster structure. During this paper, we tend to introduce a new clustering technique appropriate for the VANET surroundings on highways with the aim of enhancing the soundness of the configuration. This technique takes the speed distinction as a parameter to form comparatively stable cluster structure. We tend to conjointly develop a new multi-metric algorithmic rule for cluster-head elections.Full Paper

73 Li-Fi: The Future Technology
Anushree Gawde, Charlotte Castelino, Kaushik Jain, Tushar Parekh

Light fidelity (Li-Fi) is an emerging technology which makes use of the visible light spectrum instead of radio frequencies for the purpose of wireless communication of data. This concept was first introduced by Prof. Harald Haas in his TED Global Talk. In this review paper, we discuss the main features of li-fi. This paper mainly focuses on the present scenario in the field of light fidelity along with recent findings and their prospective future applications.Full Paper

74 Minimizing Congestion and Energy Consumption in WSN Using Deadline Aware Multilevel Packet Priority Scheduling
Nikhil Rajeshuni, Srinivas Sandiri

Wireless device networks have extensive range of application like environmental watching, traffic analysis, plan of action systems and process watching. Developing packet planning algorithms in wireless device networks with efficiency will enhance the delivery of packets through wireless links. Packet planning will guarantee quality of service and improve transmission rate in wireless device networks. It’s the method accustomed chooses that packet to be serviceable or that to be born supported the priority like real time packet and non-real time packet. This paper deals with packet planning algorithms. Wireless device network contains a completely different packet planning strategy and each has their own advantage and disadvantage. This paper proposes a formula which is Energy aware and provides priority primarily based planning which also improve the performance of task scheduling schemes in terms of end to end delay and deadlock prevention.Full Paper