Vol 4 Issue 1-1

 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (IJECT)-VOL IV ISSUE I, VER. 1 JAN. TO MARCH 2013 (is being up-loaded)


International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology Vol. 4 Issue 1, Ver. 1
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   1 A Survey on Time Domain And Frequency Domain Partial Image Encryption Techniques

Parameshachari B D, Dr. K. M. Sunjiv Soyjaudah

Abstract

The traffic of digital images and video has grown rapidly in the internet. Security becomes important for several applications like military image database, confidential video conferencing, medical images, etc.. The security of an image is commonly known as encryption, i.e., the mathematical process that transforms a plaintext message into unintelligible ciphertext. Nevertheless, the classical and modern ciphers have all been developed for the simplest form of multimedia data, i.e., text. Several techniques have been developed for textual data but are not appropriate for images and video with huge amount of file size. Partial encryption is a recent approach to reduce the computational requirements for huge volumes of an image with different client device capabilities. In this paper, we provide a survey and classification of the proposed schemes, discuss the current issues and present some future directions.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-576
   2 Design of Compact Microstrip Antenna for WiFi Applications

L. Lolit Kumar Singh, Irom Anjan Singh, Sultana Parveen Barbhuiya, Lalhriatkimi

Abstract

This paper describes the design and analysis of compact size microstrip antenna for WiFi applications using a coaxial probe fed with different shaped of cuts in the ground plane. By cutting different shaped of geometry in the ground plane and adjusting the feed point, the proposed antenna patch size is reduced to about 71% as compared to the conventional microstrip antenna without any cut on it. Simulation results with antenna design are presented and discussed.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-577
   3 Network Layer Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review

Suniti Dutt

Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are an interesting realm to explore. While WSNs are increasingly equipped to handle more complex operations, in-network processing may demand these battery powered sensors to judiciously use their restrained energy to extend the network lifetime. Another challenge in WSN is the throughput. So, for maximizing the network lifetime and enhancing the throughput, the process of data transmission should be optimized. The data transmission can be optimized by using efficient routing protocols and effective ways of data aggregation. In this paper, some of the major routing protocols for WSNs, which have been categorized as either of data-centric, location-based or hierarchical routing protocols, are presented.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-578
   4 A Review of Speech Recognition Approaches

Megha Agrawal, G Kumar, Tina Raikwar

Abstract

In this paper, the fundamentals of speech recognition are discussed and its recent progress is investigated. The various approaches available for developing an ASR system are clearly explained with its merits and demerits. The performance of the ASR system based on the adopted feature extraction technique and the speech recognition approach for the particular language is compared in this paper.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-579
   5 Comparative Analysis of Transform Base ECG Signal Compression Techniques

Alka Tiwari, Puran Gour

Abstract

Transforms provide alternate signal representations that can be useful for Electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression. The goal is to select as small a subset of the transform coefficients as possible which contain the most information about the signal, without introducing any objectionable error after reconstruction. In this paper a comparative study of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Discrete Sine Transform (DST) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) transform based approach is carried out with good compression ratio and less computation time. To generalize transform based techniques, ventricular tachycardia recording which have larger information content can be compressed to nearly the same as sinus rhythm. The entire programming in this paper is carried out on the version of MATLAB R2010a.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-580
   6 Survey on FPGA-based Fault Simulation Environment

Monika Barhane, Puran Gaur, Rajeev Thakur

Abstract

This literature paper summarizes the utilization of FPGA. FPGA can be used according to our needs by implementing any circuitry for fault detection. FPGA can run its tasks very quickly. This reveals that the FPGA-based fault simulation environment is best way, it reduces the time of fault detection. It is better than the software simulation. It detects the faults related to the radiation, single bit transients etc. This simulation environment works on the Verilog as well as VHDL language.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-581
   7 Comparative Analysis of Different Modulation Techniques by Using Quadratic Prime Codes in FH Communication System

Mayuri Shrivastava, Sachin Murarka

Abstract

FH communication is a branch of spread spectrum communication for its outstanding advantages of strong anti jamming and antimultipath fading. It is widely used in military and civilian applications for its well performances [9]. In FH communication system, FH (Frequency hopping) sequences are used to hop the frequencies for transmission and play an important role [6]. A new construction of frequency hopping (FH) sequenced are designated as quadratic prime codes by expanding the construct idea of prime codes to the extension Galois fields GF (P2). More families of FH sequences with minimal hamming auto correlation and cross correlation properties are desired to improve the performance and security of communication system. Quadratic prime codes can provide P-1/2 families of FH sequenced rather than one family for prime coded for certain prime number P, which is preferable to improve the security of communication system. A modified Bluetooth FH system is built based on quadratic prime code in Mat lab/simulation platform.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-582
   8 Survey on Built-In Self Test Techniques for Multiplier Present in FPGA

Shrikant Vaishnav, Puran Gour, Braj Bihari Soni

Abstract

BIST is a Technique of Adding additional hardware and software features into Integrated Circuit to allow them to perform selftesting, that is testing of their own operation (functionally or parametrically, or both) using their own circuits, thereby reducing dependence on an external Automated Test Equipment (ATE). This Paper Presents an Survey on Various Types of Built-In Self Test Approachs for the Multipliers Present in an Field Programmable Gate Array( FPGA).
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-583
   9 Node ID Assignment with Leveraging Identity Based Cryptography: A Computational Approach in Structured P2P

Rama Gayathri Kothalanka

Abstract

Structured peer-to-peer overlay networks provide a substrate for the construction of large-scale, decentralized applications, including distributed storage, group communication, and content distribution. In this paper, we propose novel ID assignment protocols based on identity based cryptography. These systems assign a unique identifier called Node ID and Signature to each user. These will be assigned by the Trusted Third Party(TTP). These will be later used by the user to login to the system. After login into the system, a token will be given for that session. The Token will be generated by Bootstrap Server. After Validating Token, Users can send messages to other nodes in the system. Finally this paper explores the requirements of encryption for P2P in detail, propose a list of criteria for evaluation and then compare a set of approaches from the literature.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-584
   10 Comparison Between Two CPW-FED UWB Antennas Based on Dielectric Constant of Substrate

Samiran Chatterjee, Santosh Kumar Chowdhury, Partha Pratim Sarkar, Debasree Chanda (Sarkar)

Abstract

Design and analysis of a two Compact Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) Fed Ultra Wideband (UWB) slot antenna is presented in this paper. The antenna consists of a T- shaped slot. The CPW feed is designed for 50Ω impedance. The characteristics of the designed structure are investigated by using MoM based electromagnetic solver, IE3D. An extensive analysis of the proposed antenna in the frequency and time domains is presented. The antenna was fabricated with FR4 substrate. A better impedance bandwidth is obtained from 2.85 GHz to 5 GHz that constitutes a fractional bandwidth of 58% with return loss of less than or equal to -10 dB in proposed antenna 2 rather than the impedance bandwidth is obtained from 7.70 GHz to 12 GHz that constitutes a fractional bandwidth of 48% with return loss of less than or equal to -10 dB in proposed antenna 1. The simple configuration and low profile nature of the proposed antenna leads to easy fabrication that may be built for any wireless UWB device applications.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-585
   11 Ultra Low Power ADC Based on Sigma Delta Modulator for Cell Phone Application

Smriti Narware, Rajesh Nema

Abstract

The research work primarily deals with design of an ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) intended to be used for cell phone operatione. The proposed ADC is based on delta sigma modulator because of underlying advantages in term of design flexibility and power consumption. The primary focus of the research work is on micro power operation.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-586
   12 Performance Analysis of Different Slots on Shorted Microstrip Patch Antennas

S. Anscy, A. Amir Anton Jone

Abstract

The performance of a folded shorted patch antenna is analyzed in this paper by varying the number of slots. Three different patterns are proposed in this paper by increasing the number of slots. The size of the antenna is made small compared to a conventional patch by folding the shorted patch. The radiation pattern, return loss, gain and efficiency of the three proposed antennas are computed by increasing their number of slots. These antennas exhibit different band of frequencies that can be used for many wireless applications.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-587
   13 Improved Radiation Characteristics of Plus Shape Fractal Antenna With Periodic EBG Structure

Jagadeesha. S, Vani R. M, P.V. Hunagund

Abstract

This paper outlines a multiband antenna design based on fractal concepts. Fractal antennas show multiband behavior due to selfsimilarity in their structure. The plus shaped fractal antenna with periodic EBG structure has been designed on a substrate of dielectric constant €r=4.4 and thickness 1.6mm. The proposed antenna is characterized by a compact size with iteration of the order of 1/3. The periodic structure surrounding the plus shaped patch improves return loss, bandwidth, and gain of the antenna. From the results it is observed that the antenna is radiating at multiple resonant frequencies and the resonant frequency is reduced from 2.72 GHz to 2.31 GHz & 2.27 GHz after I & II iterations respectively. Thus considerable size reduction of 32% & overall bandwidth of 13.6% are achieved with improved gain of 2.2db. The proposed antenna is simulated using the method of moment based commercial software (IE3D) and it is found that simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-588
   14 Design of Health Management System for Aged People

E. K. Arul Karthick, R. Suresh Kumar

Abstract

This paper proposes a design for automatically monitoring the aged people’s health condition at home itself by displaying data in LCD and also sends data through 3G modem to central computer at hospital for continuous monitoring.Our design incorporates sensors to measure parameters like body temperature, heartbeat, blood pressure and ECG. It allows precautious measurement of health condition at home. A PIC Microcontroller is used to analyze these data’s and trigger the alarm if any abnormalities felt by aged people. Our design has many advantages like easy to use by aged people, low cost and high speed wireless data transmission.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-589
   15 A Power Efficient Cascode Stage RF Tuned Class-E Power Amplifier for Wireless Applications

Soumya Shatakshi Panda, P. Manikandan

Abstract

An efficient and power optimized cascode stage CMOS class-E RF tuned Power Amplifier (PA) is presented in this paper. The main advantage of the proposed technique over other conventional modulation techniques as found from this work is that it will provide a higher output power dynamic range and Power Added Efficiency (PAE). The proposed design if implemented does not require an additional supply modulator as in conventional power amplifiers. A cascode modulated signal is applied to the gate of the power amplifier which in turn modulates the output power. The RF tuning of the proposed Class-E amplifier results in a PAE of approximately 68% and output dynamic range 20dBm which is an improvement over other conventional techniques. The power amplifier operates at a frequency of 2.4 GHz with 21.142dBm output power and is implemented using 180 nm technology.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-590
   16 Brightness Preserving Image Enhancement Using Modified Multipeak Histogram Equalization

Ashwini Zadbuke

Abstract

Histogram Equalization (HE) is one of the Common methods used for improving contrast in digital images. However, this technique is not very well suited to be implemented in consumer electronics, such as television, because the method tends to introduce unnecessary visual deterioration such as the saturation effect. One of the solutions to overcome this weakness is by preserving the mean brightness of the input image inside the output image. This paper proposes a new modified method, known as Modified Multipeak Histogram Equalization (MMPHE), which is an extension to HE that can produce the output image with the mean intensity almost equal to the mean intensity of the input, thus fulfill the requirement of maintaining the mean brightness of the image. First, the method smoothes the input histogram with nearest neighborhood averaging filter, and then partitions the smoothed histogram based on its local maximums Next, each partition will be assigned to a new dynamic range. After that, the modified step added that is histogram normalization, after normalization, the histogram equalization process is applied independently to these partitions, based on this new dynamic range. For sure, the changes in dynamic range, and also histogram equalization process will maintain the mean brightness of the image. Our results from 20 test images shows that this method performs well of other present mean brightness preserving histogram equalization methods. In most cases, MMPHE successfully enhance the image without severe side effects, and at the same time, maintain the mean input brightness.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-590
   17 Single Phase AC-AC Converter Based on Quasi-Z-Source Topology

K. Raja Gopal, B. Gavaskar Reddy, L. Maheswari, Ch. Anitha, B. Seshagiri, Ch. Siva Naga Prasad, A. N. Ajay Kumar

Abstract

This paper deals with a new family of quasi-Z-source converters applying to AC/AC power conversion called singlephase quasi-Zsource AC/AC converter (qZSAC). The proposed qZSAC inherits all the advantages of the traditional single-phase Z-source ACIAC converter (ZSAC), which can realize buck-boost, reversing or maintaining phase angle. In addition, the proposed qZSAC has the unique features; namely that the input.vol!a~e and output voltage is sharing the same ground; the operation IS In continuous current mode (CCM). Compared to the conventional ZSAC, the proposed qZSAC has a lower harmonic distortion input current and a higher efficiency. The proposed qZSAC can control to shape the input current to be sinusoidal and in phase with the input voltage. The operating principles of the proposed qZSAC are described, and a circuit analysis is provided. Simulation results are shown in comparison to that of the conventional SZAC. Experimentation is implemented to verify the operational concept.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-592
   18 Dynamic Modeling, Design and Simulation of a Wind/Fuel Cell/Ultra-Capacitor-Based Hybrid Power Generation System

K. Raja Gopal, B. Gavaskar Reddy, L. Maheswari, M. Keerthana, K. Divya Vani, G. Sarath Babu, Ch. Babi, Orugu.Ranga Rao

Abstract

Recent research and development of alternative energy sources have shown excellent potential as a form of contribution to conventional power generation systems. In order to meet sustained load demands during varying natural conditions, different energy sources and converters need to be integrated with each other for extended usage of alternative energy. The paper focuses on the combination of wind, fuel cell (FC) and ultra-capacitor (UC) systems for sustained power generation. As the wind turbine output power varies with the wind speed: an FC system with a UC bank can be integrated with the wind turbine to ensure that the system performs under all conditions..We propose herein a dynamic model, design and simulation of a wind/FC/UC hybrid power generation system with power flow controllers. In the proposed system, when the wind speed is sufficient, the wind turbine can meet the load demand while feeding the electrolyzer. If the available power from the wind turbine cannot satisfy the load demand, the FC system can meet the excess power demand, while the UC can meet the load demand above the maximum power available from the FC system for short durations. Furthermore, this system can tolerate the rapid changes in wind speed and suppress the effects of these fluctuations on the equipment side voltage in a novel topology.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-593
   19 Efficiency Analysis of a High Frequency Buck Converter

K.Raja Gopal, B.Gavaskar Reddy, L.Maheswari, P.Tejaswini, V.Sudheer, Ch.Nagendra Babu, K.Chinni Krishna

Abstract

An analysis of the power characteristics of a buck converter is presented in this paper. A high switching frequency is the key design parameter that simultaneously permits monolithic integration and high efficiency. A parasitic model of the buck converter is developed. With his model, a design space is determined that allows integration of active and passive devices on the same die for a target technology. An efficiency of 88.4% at a switching ff of 477MHz is demonstrated for a voltage conversion from 1.2 volts to 0.9 volts while supplying 9.5 amperes average current assuming an 80 nm CMOS technology. The area occupied by the buck converter is 12.6mm2. an analytic estimate of the efficiency is shown to be within 2.4% of simulation at the target design point. Full integration of high efficiency buck converter on the same die with a dual-VDD microprocessor is shown to be feasible
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-594
   20 Embedded Laboratory Secrity System Surveillance Using Monotroning Server and Wireless Network

A. Radaha, Chinnababu

Abstract

This project provides security for embedded laboratory. In this project using components are 1.webserver 2.camera 3.wireless sensor network 4.pc 5.wireless sensor network 6.GSM modem 7.sql sever. Camera sends video information to the web server, the system includes web server which acquires video information through camera. Sensor also using in this project for sensing environmental parameters by using wireless sensor network environmental parameters also sends to the web server. Monitoring server can be accessed by the personal computers are mobile terminals. Watch real time environment, any exception occurs MS sends short message by using GSM modem. And display alarm information on web server, alarm gives sound and light. By using the sql data base server stores the regular information related to environmental parameters.
Full Paper

IJECT/41/1/A-595