Vol 6.1- Spl-1 Jan-Mar 2015

 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (IJECT)-VOL 6.1, Spl-1 Jan-Mar 2015


International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology VOL 6.1, Spl-1 Jan – Mar 2015
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
1 James Clerk Maxwell, the Man Who Changed Everything and Was One of Einstein’s Heroes
Professor N. B. Chakrabarti

Abstract
James Clerk Maxwell FRS FRSE (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879), a Scottish Physicist , formulated the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, bringing together for the first time electricity, magnetism, and light as manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism have been called the “second great unification in physics” after the first one realized by Isaac Newton.
Maxwell developed the distribution named after him, a statistical means of describing aspects of the kinetic theory of gases. This was generalized by Boltzmann to apply to all energy distributions. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is the foundation of Statistical Mechanics. He is also known for presenting the first durable colour photograph in 1861.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0032
2 EM Revitalization Program in Taiwan
Professor (Dr.) Tzyh Ghuang Ma

Abstract
Electromagnetics has a glorious history with great accomplishments in theory as well as applications. The fruitful outcomes, while enriching our daily life, have become a burden to new comers to learn. To be excellent in electromagnetics, one is required to understand intangible wave concepts as well as to be skillful in calculus and vector analysis. Due to a number of emerging new fields in electrical engineering, there is also a global trend that less and less students are willing to choose electromagnetics as their major. Being aware of the crisis, an EM revitalization program, under the support of the MOA of Taiwan, was kicked off in 2012. Through the years, a group of electromagnetics professionals voluntarily undertook a number of efforts to re-attract the students’ attention and recall their enthusiasm in studying electromagnetics. Open courseware, customized learning paths, interactive animations, experiments with LEGO approach, and the international EM proficiency test (iEMPT) are among the main topics we covered.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0033
3 Solar Power Satellite – Technological Stratrgy and Global Status
P.Banerjee

Abstract
Electricity generated largely by fossil fuelmeets the most of power requirement of inhabitants of our planet. These resources are getting depleted fast. Nuclear energy, wind power, hydraulic power etc. constitutes only a small fraction of the power demand of the globe. So there have been proposals to collect solar power by means of earth orbiting satellites carrying solar collectors, and then to beam the power in the form of microwave energy to suitable rectenna or receiver structures on the earth. The received power is supposed to be distributed to users through grid. Because of the many technological problems involved and also prohibitive cost, none of these systems have yet been put into effect. Few countries, however, continue the effort to make solar power satellite a viable option. The paper reviews the global status in this respect.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0034
4 Materials & Technologies in Growth of Microwave Tubes
SN Joshi

Abstract
Microwave tubes have been playing major role in different sectors around the globe. They particularly got prominence during World War II, when pulse Magnetrons were used in large number in Radar Systems. Since then, other devices were also invented and are being used in various sectors. However, the major share of their applications goes to strategic sector for Radar, ECM and ECCM Systems. Though, now the newer frontiers of their application are emerging requiring sophisticated devices. CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute has been carrying out design and development of these devices almost from its inception and it has developed a strong design as well as technological base in the country. There have been lots of advancements in this area around the globe, which basically are due to (i) availability of advanced CAD tools (ii) advent of new materials including, special ceramics, high current density cathodes and high energy magnets and (iii) growth in technology and machining tools. The advent of new materials and technologies like LIGA, MEMS etc have paved the way for extending these devices up to THz range by combining vacuum and semiconductor technologies particularly for fabricating miniature structures and utilizing field emitters for achieving high current densities of the order of kA/cm2. On the other hand, for achieving very high power up to very high frequencies, design and development of fast-wave devices have also been taken up with the support of other agencies in the country. In addition to CSIR-CEERI, organizations like MTRDC (DRDO); IIT (BHU), Varanasi; IIT(R), Roorkee; SAMEER, Mumbai; DAVV, Indore etc have been carrying out R&D on these devices and also working further to improve the technologies and design methodologies. BEL, Bangalore is the only production agency in the country for productionisation of these devices.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0035
5 Radio Spectral Evolution with Photonics Technologies
Tadao Nagatsuma

Abstract
The electromagnetic waves at frequencies from 0.1 THz (100 GHz) to 10 THz is referred to as terahertz (THz) waves, which are located between microwaves and infrared light waves, and have remained unutilized for our life. Thanks to tremendous efforts of research and development over two decades, THz technologies have proven lots of capabilities which are not available with conventional radio waves and/or light waves. In this paper, we describe how efficiently THz waves can be generated and detected by contemporary photonics technologies, and present recent emerging applications including wireless communications, spectroscopy, and imaging.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0036
6 Quantum Mechanical Properties of a Nano-Scale p-n Junction Based on Si/Si0.4Ge0.6/Si Quantum Well
Aritra Acharyya, Adrija Das, Kumari Alka Singh, Subhashri Chatterjee

Abstract
The quantum mechanical behavior of a reverse biased nano-scale p-n junction based on Si/Si0.4Ge0.6/Si quantum well has been studied by obtaining the self-consistent solution of coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations. The carrier confinement within the said quantum well structure has been investigated by analyzing the special variations of electron and hole densities throughout the device structure obtained from the self-consistent solution of coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations for different widths of the quantum well. The tunnel current across the junction has also been calculated for the heterostructure for different applied reverse bias voltages. Finally the current-voltage characteristics of the heterostructure under consideration have been investigated for different widths of the quantum well.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0037
7 Nonlinear Autonomous Altitude Control of a Miniature Helicopter UAV Based on Sliding Mode Methodology
Abhinav Sinha, Rajiv Kumar Mishra

Abstract
This paper focuses on simple heave dynamics of helicopter UAV for autonomous operations to achieve efficient control scheme based on sliding mode methodology for accurate altitude trackingunder both matched and unmatched disturbances. Under fast changing dynamics of the UAV, a control law is developed that provides robustness against uncertainties, parameter variations and perturbations for accurate hovering conditions. The controller guarantees the asymptotic stability of the origin in finite time. Further, efforts are made to smoothen the control signal by making continuous approximation of the discontinuous function in the control law using hyperbolic tangent function.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0038
8 Design and Realization of a Hardware Set-up of Smart Energy Meter for Energy Consumption Monitoring from Remote through 433 MHz Point to Point RF Link
Bratati Maity, Aritra Acharyya, T. K. Sengupta

Abstract
The authors have designed and realized a remote monitoring system for continuous monitoring of electrical consumption of a consumer from a remote station. The output pulse rate of digital energy meter, which is the measure of energy consumption of the consumer end at any instant, is retrieved from the instrument via suitable optical coupling. The retrieved electrical pulses (message signal) are modulated by 433 MHz carrier signal suitable amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulator. The on-off keying modulation scheme (i.e. 100% modulation index) has been used for the said purpose. The modulated signal is transmitted via a 7 inch monopole antenna. The transmitted signal is successfully received from the remote end by a suitable receiver system using a similar 7 inch monopole antenna. The received signal is demodulated via a 433 MHz ASK demodulator. The demodulated pulses (i.e. the message signal) at the remote monitoring station are converted to equivalent electrical pulses and then the instantaneous pulse rate of the same (i.e. instantaneous frequency) is converted to equivalent instantaneous voltage via suitably designed frequency to voltage converter. Thus at any instant, the average value of the instantaneous voltage output of the receiver provides the measure of the electrical energy consumption at the consumer end at that instant. The average voltage output is calibrated accordingly to provide direct measure of the energy consumption. The system is tested for several transmitters to receiver distances to evaluate its ranging capability.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0039
9 A New Method of Obtaining an Ultrashort Optical Pulse by the Use of Optical Kerr Material and a Sawtooth Optical Pulse
Agnijita Chatterjee, Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

Abstract
Optical Kerr material plays very important role in optical switching and data processing. These Kerr materials can be used also in wavelength conversion if some time dependent optical pulses having some regular power shape functions are passed through the Kerr type of non-linear material. Again in digital optical communication optical pulses are preferred for sending the message signals. Here in this paper the authors propose a new method of obtaining ultrashort pulse by the use of optical Kerr material and a sawtooth optical pulse.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0040
10 Moderate Density Salt & Pepper Noise Removal
Shubhendu Banerjee, Aritra Bandyopadhyay, Rajib Bag, Atanu Das

Abstract
Digital gray scale images are susceptible to salt and pepper noise contamination often due to capturing difficulties. Salt and pepper noise are treated by intensity values 0 & 255. This paper proposes a denoising technique for images corrupted by moderate density salt and pepper noise. The proposed method first divided the image into four equal segments across the middle and different pixel approximation (averaging) method is applied for each segments. The method is iterated a number of times till desired performance is achieved. Experimental results with this proposed novel method shows that method outperform with respect to Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Image Enhancement Factor (IEF).
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0041
11 Performance Analysis of VM Scheduling Algorithm of CloudSim in Cloud Computing
Md. Ashifuddin Mondal, Sayan Choudhury, Md.Sohel Islam

Abstract
Cloud Computing is the emerging technology in IT industry which is built on the basis of sharing of resources over a network. To maximize benefits of cloud computing, developers must design mechanisms that optimize the use of architectural and deployment models. The users of cloud are growing day by day, as a result the number of users is increasing and hence it is becoming a serious issue for the developers to schedule the components. Scheduling refers to a set of policies to control the order of work to be performed by a computer system. Due to the complexity and scale of shared resources, it is often hard to analyze the performance of new scheduling and provisioning algorithms on actual Cloud test beds. Therefore, simulation tools are becoming very useful for the evaluation of the Cloud computing model which allows researchers to rapidly evaluate the efficiency, performance and reliability of their new algorithms on a large heterogeneous Cloud infrastructure. For simulation we need a simulation tool, we are using CloudSim. In this paper we will be analyzing the existing Host allocation policy and VM allocation policy in terms of average waiting time and throughput of CloudSim.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0042
12 Single Quantum Well Graphene Nanoribbon p-n Junction: Part I: Quantum Confinement
Aritra Acharyya, Bhadrani Banerjee, Anvita Tripathi, Aman Kumar Verma, Manohar Verma, Rituparna Sarkar, Utsab Mukherjee, Upama Ghosh, Sonali Banerjee

Abstract
A Single Quantum Well (SQW) p-n junction diode based on graphene nanoribbon (GNR) has been proposed in this paper. The quantum confinement of both types of charge carriers, i.e. electron and holes within the quantum wells associated with conduction and valance bands of SQW GNR p-n junction diode under reverse bias has been studied by obtaining the self-consistent solution of coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations. It is observed that the percentage of confinement of both electrons and holes within the respective quantum wells decreases with the increase of applied reverse bias for fixed width of GNR within the quantum well, while the same increases with the increase of the width of GNR within the quantum well for fixed applied reverse bias voltage.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0043
13 Single Quantum Well Graphene Nanoribbon p-n Junction – Part II: Quantum Tunneling
Aritra Acharyya, Rituparna Sarkar, Utsab Mukherjee, Upama Ghosh, Sonali Banerjee, Bhadrani Banerjee, Anvita Tripathi, Aman Kumar Verma, Manohar Verma

Abstract
A theory has been developed for interband tunneling in a single quantum well (SQW) p-n junction diode based on graphene nanoribbon (GNR). The Zener tunneling probability of reverse biased SQW GNR p-n junction diode has been calculated starting from the intrinsic bandstructure of GNR by evaluating the Wentzel- Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) band-to-band tunneling probability. Numerical calculations show that the tunneling current increases with the increase of the reverse bias voltage for fixed width of GNR within the quantum well and also with the increase of the width of GNR within the quantum well for fixed applied reverse bias voltage.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0044
14 Large-Signal and Noise Properties of Heterojunction DDR IMPATTs Based on AlxGa1-xN~GaN Material System at 1.0 THz
Suranjana Banerjee, Aritra Acharyya, J. P. Banerjee, Monojit Mitra

Abstract
In this paper, the authors have made an attempt to study the largesignal as well as avalanche noise properties of heterojunction double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diodes based on AlxGa1-xN~GaN material system designed to operate at 1.0 THz. The mole fraction of Al in AlxGa1-xN alloy is taken to be x = 0.4 in the simulation. Two different heterojunction structures such as N-Al0.4Ga0.6N~p-GaN and n-GaN~P-Al0.4Ga0.6N are considered and their large-signal and noise properties are compared with GaN and Al0.4Ga0.6N homojunction DDR IMPATTs. The results show that N-Al0.4Ga0.6N~p-GaN heterojunction DDR IMPATT device not only excels its complementary counterpart (i.e. n-GaN~P-Al0.4Ga0.6N DDR IMPATT) but also its homojunction counterparts (i.e. GaN and Al0.4Ga0.6N DDR IMPATTs) with respect to large-signal conversion efficiency and power output as well as avalanche noise performance at 1.0 THz.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0045
15 Optimal Design of Two-crossed Bowtie Antenna With Genetic Programming
Surajit Kundu, Partha Dey

Abstract
Two crossed bowtie antenna with annular ring is a suitable candidate for Ground Penetrating Radars. Here annular ring acts as capacitive load, overcome the hurdle of resistive load, as proposed earlier.Impedance match is a great concern of this design. Here, with the help of Genetic Programming, we have proposed a model to get proper impedance match at antenna resonant frequency for particular values of substrate permittivity and spacing between antenna arm and annular ring.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0046
16 An Experimental Scheme of Optoelectronic One Bit Latch by the Use of LDR and LED Coupling
Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay, Tabassum Shamshad

Abstract
Optics has many inherent advantages in high speed (over THz) logic operation, Computation and data processing over electronics. Opto-electronic systems are faster than electronic system and optical (photonic) systems are more faster than opto-electronic systems. In this paper the authors have proposed a new scheme of implementing one bit opto-electronic latch (flip-flop) with LDRLED coupling mechanism, where the light from LED is fed back with LDR input. This latch serves as one bit memory cell also. The scheme is supported by experimental verification also. This latch gives an optical output in respect of an optical input. In this proposed system an optical output is obtained which describes the earlier memory bit stored in it.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0047
17 Studies of a New Digital Phase Lock Loop in the Presence of Teager Energy Operator
S. Sarkar, U. Maulik, B. N. Biswas

Abstract
This paper produces the studies of a new digital phase lock loop in the presence of the Teager energy Operator (TEO) in MATLAB Simulink environment. The simultaneous presence of phase modulation input in the new modified digital controlled oscillator (DCO) and the TEO module is a new concept in digital phase lock loop (DPLL) design.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0048
18 Pole movements in Colpitts Oscillator
S Guha Mallick, S Chatterjee, B N Biswas

Abstract
A Colpitts oscillator is a third order nonlinear feedback control system which is required to generate steady state oscillation starting from an infinitesimal small excitation. It indicates that the pair of conjugate poles must lie on the right half side of the Laplace s-plane and third one must be in the left half of s-plane. Notwithstanding the popularity of the Colpitts oscillator some of the questions relating to its large signal analysis have remained unattended. (1) How do the poles move during the growth period of the oscillation and on what parameters the pole movement depend? (2) Do these poles ultimately reside on the imaginary axis? (3) How does the feedback delay affect the steady state amplitude of oscillation? How does the feedback delay affect the movement of the poles? (4) Simple yet elegant energy balance principle instead of nonlinear analysis has been applied to find the steady state amplitude of oscillation. These are some of the unanswered questions that the present paper deals with. Interesting simplified but accurate theory based on the operation of the oscillator near the resonant frequency of the tank circuit has been proposed.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0049
19 Effect of Feedback Delay on Colpitts Oscillator
S Guha Mallick, S Chatterjee, B N Biswas

Abstract
A Colpitts oscillator is a third order nonlinear feedback control system which is required to generate steady state oscillation starting from an infinitesimal small excitation. It indicates that the pair of conjugate poles must lie on the right half side of the Laplace s-plane and third one must be in the left half of s-plane. Notwithstanding the popularity of the Colpitts oscillator some of the questions relating to its large signal analysis have remained unattended. (1) How does the feedback delay affect the age-old Berkhausen’s Criteria? (2) How does the frequency of oscillation depend on the amount of feedback delay? These are some of the unanswered questions that the present paper deals with. Interesting simplified but accurate theory based on the operation of the oscillator near the resonant frequency of the tank circuit has been proposed.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0050
20 Applications of Energy Balance Principles
B.N. Biswas, S. Chatterjee, S Guha Mallick

Abstract
For solving the nonlinear differential equation of the pendulum considering the mass of the string, here we apply the energy conservation principle to find the dependence of the time period on the amplitude of oscillation. The purpose of this paper is to present a method for calculating stray capacitances of single-layer solenoid air-core inductors using an analytical approach based on few simplifying assumptions. In this paper, for the first time, the effects of stray capacitance are discussed and analyzed using energy balance principle. We use energy balance principle to arrive at the required solution in case of a Van der pol oscillator. The governing equation can be written in terms of circuit parameters of the vacuum tube oscillator.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0051
21 Android Based Bluetooth Appliance Control Mechanism
Aritra Sasmal, Abhradeep Palit, Abhishek Majumder, Deepjyoti Bhowmik, Sougata Chanda, Aritra Bandyopadhyay

Abstract
The proposed algorithm basically is an android application which possesses the capability to control any sort of electrical appliances remotely over the Bluetooth. The control mechanism mainly refers to the switching (on / off) of the appliances. It emphasizes on creating a virtual switch board, giving the user an exact experience of what he does regularly when switching off his bedroom lamp or his air – conditioner and for a lot of other household appliances.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0052
22 An Additional Phase Control in a Fuzzy Controlled DSP DPLL to Improve the Transient Behavior and BFSK Signal Tracking
Basab Chatterjee, Sudhabindu Ray, B N Biswas

Abstract
This paper proposes a digital signal processing type digital phase locked loop (DSP DPLL) of 1st order where a fuzzy logic controller is incorporated in the loop for automatic adjustment f loop bandwidth and an additional phase control is included in the digital control oscillator (DCO). This maiden approach of fuzzy controlled DPLL produces a faster acquisition without compromising the tracking performance. Under Matlab/Simulin® environment, the system level model of the proposed loop is realized using Xilinx System Generator®, a tool from Xilinx used for FPGA design. Simulation result confirms the improvement in transient behavior and usefulness of the proposed DSP DPLL as BFSK demodulator even in presence of noise.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0053
23 Resonance Characteristics of Asymmetric Fractal Shaped Dipole Antennas
Argha Kamal Das, Rajib Kumar Gupta, Manimala Pal, Rowdra Ghatak

Abstract
In this paper, the resonance characteristics of Von Koch and quadratic Koch fractal dipole antenna is presented. The distinctive contribution of the investigations reveal that the quadratic Koch curve provides greater miniaturization as compared to Von Koch fractal shaped dipole antenna. The introduction of novel asymmetric design of both the fractals shaped dipoles result in improved matching at the second resonance. This observation is explained on the basis of current distribution on the antenna that results in change in the impedance profile of the asymmetric design. The constructive addition of fields due to asymmetric design results in improved gain of the dipoles. The antenna has possible application as base station antenna systems.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0054
24 Characterization of Asymmetric Planar Coupled Lines
Nikita, Atul Prabhat, Manimala Pal, Rowdra Ghatak

Abstract
Microstrip couple line is an integral part of microwave engineering .In this paper an attempt has been made in order to provide certain idea about the design of Microstrip couple line that employs stepped impedance asymmetric coupled line. Instead of going into the deep theoretical idea which is used to design such a couple line, it can be easily done using the commercial electromagnetic simulator. The information about the even and odd mode impedance can be used to determine the coupling.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0055
25 A Compact Semicircular Dongle Sized Antenna for UWB Communication
Abhik Gorai, Manimala Pal, Rowdra Ghatak

Abstract
In this paper, a compact dongle sized UWB antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a dongle size radiator and three rectangular slots to achieve ultra-wideband impedance bandwidth from 3 GHz to 10.6 GHz, respectively. The overall layout make the antenna have a size of 15×37 mm2 which is suitable for UWB communication. Moreover the antenna has a peak gain of 4dBi, group delay profile is within 1ns and has a satisfactory radiation characteristics.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0056
26 Electromagnetic Analysis of Concentric Split Ring Resonators in Conjunction to Microstrip Lines
Mukul Das, Manimala Pal, Pallavi Biswas, Rowdra Ghatak

Abstract
In this paper, split-ring resonator coupled with microstrip line is presented. Split-ring resonators are sub wavelength resonators typically used to design metamaterial circuits. Here analysis of SRRs is carried out to obtain the characteristics of s-parameter behavior when such resonators are placed near microstrip lines. Apart from the stop band behavior the phase variation for different orientations are also visited with electromagnetic analysis which reveals that the hase varies drastically under certain orientations that lead to increased dispersive nature of the commonly called metamaterial loaded transmission line.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0057
27 Compact LPF using Spiral and Fractal Shaped Defected Ground Structures with Wide Stop Band
Anindya Das, Poulami Sinhamahapatra, Manimala Pal, Pankaj Sarkar, Rowdra Ghatak

Abstract
In this paper, two pairs of dumb-bell shaped and spiral shaped resonators as defected ground structure positioned along a widened microstrip line are used to realize a high selective low pass filter with upper cut-off frequency at 3.80 GHz. Spiral shape defected ground structure is coupled with a first order Minkowski fractal shaped defected ground structure in the form of a dumb-bell. The designed low pass filter exhibits a sharp transition at the cut-off frequency having measured pass band insertion loss below 0.4 dB and a rejection band 20 dB from 3.35 GHz to 14.05 GHz.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0058
28 Asymmetric Stepped Impedance Resonator Based Dual-Band Bandpass Filter
Oindrila Das, Soumi Giri, Manimala Pal, Rowdra Ghatak

Abstract
A dual-band bandpass filter for WLAN application is presented in this paper. The proposed filter is realized using coupled asymmetric SIRs with 50 ohm I/O feed line. The center frequencies of the passbands are 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz, respectively. Miniaturization is obtained by folding the linear asymmetric SIR and coupling them and selectivity is produce by I/O feed line to create two transmission zeros. The passband insertion loss is within 2 dB.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0059
29 Human Gait Recognition Using Anatomical Landmarks
Mridul Ghosh, Manab Kr.Das

Abstract
An efficient feature extraction technique of spatial-temporal movement characteristic of human subject with respect to surveillance camera is presented in this paper. Different measures, angles created between the shoulder, wrist and ankle (SWA) Centre of Mass Knee and Ankle with the (CKA), angles created between Centre of Mass, knee and ankle (CKA), the distances between the control points (DC) have been taken as different features. For shape extraction Fourier descriptor has been used to the individual frames of the subject. Statistical approach has been applied for recognition of individuals based on the feature vectors (collected from SWA, CKA, and DCs) for each video frame. Recognition result is very much encouraging in our approach compared to other recent methods.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0060
30 Simulation of Self Calibrated Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) using PIC Micro-controller
Koushik Pyne, Vishwanath Gupta

Abstract
In this proposed work a Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) is self calibrated with the help of a PIC18F458 (Programmable Inter-phase Controller) microcontroller based on the regression equation which is derived by the method of least squares. The proposed work is simulated based on experimental data obtained from LVDT trainer kit by using the software Proteus Design Suite ISIS Professional v7.7SP2 which incorporates PIC18F458. However, the standard data obtained are digital which need to be converted to analog form for real time applications.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0061
31 Design and Fabrication of a Simple Waveform Generator
Abhinay Prasad Manandhar, Vishwanath Gupta

Abstract
A simple and economical wave form generator is designed with the help of PSIM software and the hardware is fabricated in laboratory and tested satisfactorily. The waveform generator uses a 220V, 50 Hz AC supply as its input and gives a square wave, triangular wave, saw tooth wave (all 50 Hz)and a DC signal as its output signals. In absence of high quality function generator, the fabricated model which is economical as well as simple can be used as an alternative. However, this fabricated model can be modified further to perform frequency modulation.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0062
32 Design of Control System for Autopilot of an Aeroplane
Subhadeep Samanta, Kalyan Kar, Shubha Mondal, Sourish Sanyal, Amar Nath Sanyal, Debabrata Roy

Abstract
Modern aeroplanes are generally equipped with autopilots for greater reliability and flexibility and trouble-free operation. Closed loop systems are incorporated to control the attitude of the plane. Manual control by the pilot is kept in addition for man-machine interfacing. The control has to be exercised on the Euler angles of flight- the roll, pitch and yaw. The design is made by separating the roll from pitch and yaw as an approximation. The desired attitude is obtained by controlling three surfaces of the airplane- the ailerons, elevators, and rudder. It is difficult to design the control system as the specifications are very stringent and in many cases they are controversial. The forward path gain must be high to reduce the steady state error which tends to make the system oscillatory and unstable in many cases. Integral feedback eliminates the steady state error but it makes the system oscillatory. Rate feedback is added to increase the damping but it tends to make the response slow. Even if a stable system can be designed with PD-feedback, the specified stability margins cannot be realized. Therefore a compensator has to be cascaded in the forward path. The paper shows the methodology and the steps in design of such a stringent control system.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0063
33 A Parametric Study on Microstrip Patch Antenna
A. Bhattacharya, B. N. Biswas

Abstract
Microstrip patch antennas are characterized by more physical parameters than are conventional microstrip antennas. Relative permittivity of antenna substrate, patch width, substrate thickness, microstrip thickness, loss tangent are the key parameters of a microstrip patch antenna. The antenna properties, e.g., radiation efficiency, input impedance, resonance frequency, band-width, stability of oscillation depends on those key parameters. A comprehensive study have been carried out in this paper along with some findings of the authors. Optimum choice of those key parameters is important to achieve an improved antenna performance is also suggested in this paper.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0064
34 Effect of Feedback Delay on the Locking Characteristics of a Colpitts Oscillator
Subhradeep Pal, B. N. Biswas

Abstract
Colpitts Oscillators have been widely studied in the past. But the effect of feedback delay has not been studied in the past. Only recently a paper entitled “A Colpitts Oscillator: A New Look” has been submitted as student paper to the present URSI 2014 from Sir J. C. Bose Creativity Centre, SKFGI, India. In this paper, the locking phenomenon in a Colpitts oscillator has been presented. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, no such work has been reported in the past. This work is mainly based on circuit simulation results and numerical experiments which are carried through the use of TINA and MATHCAD softwares.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0065
35 Design and Implementation of High Frequency Inverter Operation for Induction Heating Cooking Application Using PSIM Software
Pradip Kumar Sadhu, Debabrata Roy, Nitai Pal

Abstract
An inverter circuit which generates a output high frequency AC. A low frequency AC (LFAC) to high frequency AC (HFAC) power conversion system without a DC smoothing Capacitor filter is introduced. The operating principle of a utility frequency AC-high frequency AC power frequency conversion circuit defined as a high frequency inverter is described. This synthesized converter can be considered as an output extension of a full-bridge topology where the AC to DC conversion is done by a bridge converter and again the required output AC is obtained with the help of seriesresonant inverter circuit. It allows the control of simultaneously and independently, up to their rated power reducing the component requirement along with the converter solution. To verify the theoretical predictions, the conversion system is designed and simulated using the PSIM Simulink with an induction-heating prototype. The advantage of such a circuit is that the AC side line current harmonic components and power factor characteristics are improved. The performance of the output high frequency inverter simulated with switching frequency 66 KHz and RMS input voltage 240 V.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0066
36 Plasma based Double Gap Pseudospark Switch for Pulsed Power Modulators
H. Rahaman, V. Pathania, D. K. Pal, 1R. P. Lamba, B. L. Meena, N. Kumar, U. N. Pal, Ram Prakash

Abstract
A modular plasma based double gap pseudospark discharge switch has been designed and developed at CSIR-CEERI Pilani with an intention of generating repetitive pulsed power source. Operation of the developed pseudospark switch is comparable to that of commercially available thyratron switches in the range of typically 50 kV and up to 15 kA. A peak discharge current up to 10 kA has been achieved through a resistive load from the switching of the developed demountable double gap pseudospark at a breakdown voltage of about 40 kV.
Full Paper
IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0067
37 Technological Advancement in Plasma Assisted Microwave Source at CSIR-CEERI
Niraj Kumar, Udit Narayan Pal, Dharmendra Pal, Arvind Singh Jardon, Nalini Pareek, Y. Srivastava, Hasib Rahman, Ram Prakash

Abstract
A pseudospark discharge is a viable possibility for plasma assisted microwave source development due to the emitted linear beam characteristics, such as, high current density and high brightness as well as self-focusing during its propagation. The pseudospark discharge based single gap plasma cathode electron (PCE) gun, multi-gap PCE-Gun and sheet beam PCE-Gun have already been developed. The X-band slow wave structure (SWS) for beamwave interaction has been designed, developed and characterized which operates in the range of 8.5 -9.7 GHz. The conical horn antenna has been designed and characterized for spent beam collection. The assembly of the SWS with conical horn antenna for generation of microwave signal has also been developed. The design parameters have been optimized accordingly for efficient microwave generation. The design and technology establishment would lead to test an integrated plasma assisted microwave source at CSIR-CEERI.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0068
38 Security Enhancement in Audio Steganography by RSA Algorithm
Adeel Jawed, Atanu Das

Abstract
Steganography and cryptography both are considered as methods to protect the digital information. Present work explored the application of RSA cryptography as a wrapper of an audio steganographic file. In the proposed technique, first the audio file is sampled and then an appropriate bit of each sample is altered to embed the textual information. The audio file is then encrypted by RSA technique to achieve better security in the audio steganography process. This novel approach encompassing RSA and audio steganography successfully increases the security while sending textual information over diversified networks. The implementation of the said technique shows that RSA algorithm can work as an envelope successfully with the audio container.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0069
39 Secure and in-vivo Biometric Fingerprint Detection Using Optical Coherence Tomography
Vishal Srivastava, Krishna Dalal, Devjyoti Dalal, Elanchezhiyan Devarajan

Abstract
Fingerprint distinctive patterns are very helpful in biometric identification but are very vulnerable to spoofing such as dummy or fake fingers. In this context, we propose a method for identifying fingerprints based on the subcutaneous structure of fingers using swept source-optical coherence tomography. The proposed method has a potential in finding the artificial material on the surface of the fingers. The results indicated the accuracy and reliability of fingerprint identification.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0070
40 A Brief Survey on Image Enhancement and Performance Comparison Between Conventional Methods and an Adaptive Unsharp Masking Method
Indrani Senapoty, Saswati Sarma, Nilomit Jyoti Sarker, Pamela Chakraborty, Haradhan Chel

Abstract
Image enhancement is basically improving the interpretability or perception of information in images for human viewers and providing `better’ input for other automated image processing techniques. Since image clarity is very easily affected by lighting, weather, or equipment that has been used to capture the image. These conditions lead to image by suffering from loss of finest information. As a result, many techniques have developed known as image Enhancement techniques to recover the information in an image. Image enhancement is used in a huge number of applications with important challenges such as noise reduction, degradations, restoration and de-blurring etc. This paper provides an insight of few of the modern day image enhancement techniques and thus compares their effectiveness. It also presents a way out to minimise the errors in other techniques using high boost adaptive un-sharp masking filtering technique which is a major breakthrough in the field of image enhancement.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0071
41 On a Single Loop Optoelectronic Oscillator Using Variable Centre Frequency Dynamic Filter
A Mukherjee, D Ghosh, N R Das, B N Biswas

Abstract
The present paper considers the influence of a variable center frequency tuned circuit replacing the narrowband RF filter in a conventional optoelectronic oscillator. The free-running amplitude and normalized frequency of such a system are derived and theoretical analysis coupled with experimental results showing good agreement are presented. Finally, the frequency control arrangement for such a system in response to an angle modulated signal is reported.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0072
42 Preliminary Studies on Injection Locking of Oscillators
H Kalita, S K Pandey, A Saikia, U Choudhury, R C Sah, A Mukherjee

Abstract
Injection locking characteristics of oscillators are reviewed both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical results coupled with experimental findings are presented. A simple method of deriving the equation for locking range is reported.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0073
43 Design and Performance of PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller for Thermal Process Using LabVIEW
Ullash Roy, Ransai Basumatary, Ganesh Roy

Abstract
The Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller is the most widely used control strategy in industry. The popularity of PID controllers can be attributed partly to their robust performance in a wide range of operating conditions and partly to their functional simplicity. This paper presents design of PID controller using LabVIEW software for a thermal process. Also a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) using simple approach & smaller rule set is proposed using LabVIEW. Experimental results are demonstrated to compare the performances of the two controllers.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0074
44 Modeling of Co-axial Coupler for Ka-band Helix Traveling-Wave Tube
Raktim Guha, N Purushothaman, A Roy Choudhury, SK Ghosh

Abstract
This paper represents modeling and optimization of coaxial coupler for Ka band helix traveling-wave tube (TWT), using CST microwave studio. Coaxial couplers are used to feed and extract RF power into and from a TWT. Hence, couplers are suitably modeled to minimize reflection of RF signals. Modeling of coaxial coupler includes design of quarter wave to sub-quarter wave transformers for transformation of characteristic impedance of helix to load impedance (connector impedance), such that, minimum reflection occurs. Performance of coupler is measured by S-parameters.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0075
45 Heterodyne Phase Locked Loop Using Dynamic Band Pass Filter
D Ghosh, A Mukherjee, S Ray, B N Biswas

Abstract
A heterodyne phase locked loop with dynamic band pass filter has been studied methodically with a view to demodulate a wideband FM signal. A simple relationship between the modulation index of the incoming FM signal with the effective band width of the dynamic band pass filter is proposed .
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0076
46 Using Fuzzy Trapezoidal Rule for Web Learner’s Competence Assessment
Debamita Bose, Atanu Das

Abstract
Tracking student’s competencies while undergoing an effective learning systems remained a challenging research domain. It is often carried out using fuzzy inference techniques in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) because of non-crispy behaviour of learner’s progress. Web based ITS are becoming popular these days and are used in science and engineering education even in emerging countries.
This paper attempts to propose a method of assessing learner’s competencies using fuzzy trapezoidal rule. While calculating learner’s competencies, learner’s other professional performances are being considered besides skill attributes. Developed prototype of the ITS shows that the learners can successfully track their competencies without the help of others because of the use of the automated messaging about their development.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0077
47 Optimization of High Performance GNR TFETs
Anuva Ganguly, Jayabrata Goswami, Aritra Acharyya, J.P.Banerjee

Abstract
Optimization study of GNR TFET has been carried out to obtain high performance with respect to ON-OFF current ratio (Ion/Ioff), subthreshold swing(S), intrinsic gate delay (τint), gate capacitance (CG) and quantum capacitance (CQ) by varying the channel length from 20 to 100nm and ribbon width 2 to 10nm keeping effective oxide thickness and gate oxide thickness fixed at 0.5nm and 1nm respectively. Two-dimensional Poisson’s equation has been solved by finite difference method numerical technique in source, channel and drain regions separately to obtain the surface potential and On and Off state energy band diagrams. The optimized values of Ion/ Ioff, S, τint, CG and CQ are 4.959×107, 1.06mV/decade, 68fs, 67aF/ μm, 66.05aF/μm(CQ calculated at supply voltage of -0.01v) respectively for channel width and length designed at 4nm and 85nm respectively. The results show that the performances of the proposed optimized GNR TFET excel that reported earlier by Qin Zhang [1].
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0078
48 An Experimental Study to Design the Hardware of Electrocardiogram Monitoring System
Aritra Mondal, Sanghamitra Ghosal

Abstract
The statistics said that the low and middle-income families are disproportionally affected over Cardio Vascular Disease and it occurs almost equally in men and women. So, maximum deaths can be attributed to raise blood pressure, due to strokes and coronary heart disease. To cure this serious threat we need to analyse the electrical activity of the heart and this work can be done by an ECG (electrocardiogram) analyser. In the advancing age of modern technology the old devices are modified to make it faster, cheaper and get better performance in their fields. At present time most of the peoples having their own PCs to work. Keep it in mind; an experimental study is carried out in this paper to implement a low cost ECG monitoring system, which is monitored by the Digital Storage Oscilloscope. The 3-leads Electrocardiogram analyser is a device that integrates an ECG acquisition system to correctly classify and identify unhealthy ECG signals. ECG monitoring system involves 3-cupper leads to sense the heart signals and then amplify using 3-opamp instrumentation amplifier and sent to the DSO. The main thrust of this project is on the design of the hardware used to process the signal with the software[1].Our future development is the Implementation of a PC based Digital Storage Oscilloscope communicated by USB port which makes our system portable and may be available to the individuals.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0079
49 Inductive Output Tube: A Promising Microwave Source for High Power Applications
Meenu Kaushik, LM Joshi

Abstract
This paper presents the overview of inductive output tube (IOT), a vacuum electron tube, which is now widely used for broadcast and scientific applications. The structure and operating principle of this device have been described. Its similarities and merits over other conventional tubes i.e. klystron and tetrode have been discussed. The current state of the art and major applications have been highlighted in this paper. Some simulation results of input cavity of an IOT using CST code, which is undergoing at CSIRCEERI, Pilani, have been presented in detail.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0080
50 Design of RF section for X Band Sheet Beam Klystron
S.Indumathi, D.Pal, A.K.Bandyopadhyay, L.M.Joshi, B.Kumar, R.Meena, S.Saha, P.Shukla

Abstract
In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of RF section for 11.42 GHz sheet beam klystron. All the cavities (including input cavity) are multi-cell cavity. All of them are having 3 cells. Output cavity is a 5 cell cavity. These cavities have been properly designed to have targeted R/Q and Q. In sheet beam cavities obtaining a flat filed with required R/Q is a big challenge. With proper design this has been achieved and cross verified with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO and MAGIC 3D codes. Results obtained by both these codes are in close proximity. Coupling also plays an important role in getting desired output power. Here we represent the optimized coupling for input as well as output side. Desired loaded Q has been achieved by optimizing the design in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO. These multi-cell cavities have also been fabricated. Measurement is being carried out.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0081
51 Implementation of Element Space Spectral MUSIC Based on ULA of λ/2 Dipole in Coherent Environment for 2D Sources
Dhusar Kumar Mondal, B N Biswas

Abstract
Classical MUSIC algorithm works with reasonable accuracy and resolution on the premise that the impinging signals are not fully correlated. But the performance degrades severely in a highly correlated environment. Spectral MUSIC with spatial smoothing as preprocessing scheme solve this problem of coherency detection. In this work complete attention is paid to analyze the performance limitation when element space spectral MUSIC algorithm is implemented with ULA of practical dipole element in multipath coherent signal environment. The ultimate performance of the system is restricted due to the specific array pattern of ULA as well as gain pattern of individual elements of array.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0082
52 Analysing Resolution Parameters of Different Direction of Arrival Estimation Algorithm for Un-correlated Environment
Dhusar Kumar Mondal, Aritra Mondal, Pranoy Das, Chayan Seth, B N Biswas

Abstract
High resolution Direction Of Arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm enhance the performance of smart antenna system, the key technology to solve spectrum scarcity problem. This paper presents the detection capability of conventional Bartlett and Capon algorithm and subspace based MUSIC algorithm. A large no of simulation study is carried out in this paper to investigate the resolution of different DOA algorithms like Bartlett method, Capon Method and MUSIC in an un-correlated sources environment based on uniform linear array. The work come out with the plot of resolution curve of above three algorithm with variation of different design parameters for selection and practical implementation of any algorithm.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0083
53 Design of Electron Gun and Focusing System for W-Band Folded Waveguide TWT
ARoy Choudhury, RaktimGuha, SArya, Pradeep Kumar, A MercyLatta, SK Ghosh, V Srivastava, RK Sharma

Abstract
This paper presents the design of electron gun and focusing system for the W-Band Folded Waveguide Traveling wave Tube (FWTWT) using two available commercial software such as EGUN and TRAK. Pierce type electron gun with isolated beam forming electrode(BFE) and thermionic M-type dispenser cathode with 1.6mm button diameter has been opted for W-Band folded waveguide TWT under development at CSIR-CEERI. Solenoid magnet focusing has beendesigned to achieve electron beam focusing with controlledscalloping and ripples well within 8% and the beam waist radius less than 0.13mm.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0084
54 21st Century Engineering: A Fusion of Applied Science and Humanities
B N Biswas, S Nandi

Abstract
Characteristic feature of 21st century engineering is joining of science, technologies, economics and humanities.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0085
55 Design and Development of Test Collector Used in a Magnetron Injection Gun Assembly (MIGA) of a Gyrotron
Sudha Gupta, SK Sharma, Udaybir Singh, Naveen Sahu, Narendra Shekhawat, Deepak Srivastava, Hasina Khatun, MK Alaria, A Bera, AK Sinha

Abstract
The magnetron injection gun assembly (MIGA) is a very important assembly used for evaluation of a magnetron injection gun in a gyrotron. Obviously, the gyrating electron beam emitted from the cathode of MIG needs vacuum for the effective flow. Thus a component known as a test collector is attached with the MIG at one end to close and collect the electron beam. In this paper, the need of a test collector alongwith the designs and thermal simulation have been discussed. For the studies, two gyrotrons, namely, 42 GHz, 200 kW and 120 GHz, 01 MW gyrotrons are considered. The test collectors for these gyrotron are optimized as 85 mm and 140 mm, respectively for the inner diameters obtained through designs, thermal simulations as well as mechanical interfacing with the anode diameters of the corresponding MIGs. Using the test collectors, MIGA of 42 Gyrotron was fabricated and vacuum processed while the MIGA of 120 GHz gyrotron is at the final stage of fabrication. The paper also elaborates the experimental results of MIGA of 42 GHz gyrotron giving the designed value of 10A beam current.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0086
56 Realization of Flat-to-Negative Dispersion of a Helical Slow-Wave Structure for a Wideband Travelling-Wave Tube using T-Shaped Dielectric Helix-Support Rods
Sumit K Varshney, Amit K Varshney, Raktim Guha, Sanjay K Ghosh

Abstract
Field analysis of the helical structure supported by identical dielectric T-shaped rods symmetrically arranged around the helix, the whole enclosed in an overall metal envelope, has been carried out in the sheath-helix model. The analysis established the superiority of the T-shaped supports over their rectangular- and inverted-T-shaped counterparts with respect to providing flatto- negative dispersion characteristics as required for wideband travelling-wave tubes for electronic warfare applications.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0087
57 Moment Method Analysis of Standard and Reduced Height Broad-Wall Longitudinal Slot Doublets in Rectangular Waveguides
Rintu K. Gayen, Sushrut Das

Abstract
This paper presents a method of moments based analysis of standard and reduced height a broad-wall longitudinal slot doublets antenna using Multiple Cavity Modeling Technique (MCMT). Theoretical data for reflection coefficient, transmission coefficient, resonance length and resonance conductance have been obtained. The theoretical data have been compared with experimental data and Ansoft HFSS’s simulated data to validate the proposed method. The excellent agreement obtained between the results validates the analysis.
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0088
58 A Compact Dual Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for Bluetooth/WI-MAX Using Koch Fractal
Ritidrita Dhara, Shrabani Ghosh, Sayantani Banerjee, Payal Saha, Suvadeep Choudhury

Abstract
A low profile, dual band (Bluetooth, Wi-MAX application), planar monopole antenna is presented in this work. Rectangular ‘C’ shaped slot is cut on the radiating element and rectangular open loop resonators are embedded in the ground section of the antenna structure. Fractal geometry is included to improve the gain of the antenna. Operating frequencies of the antenna are 2.2 – 2.5 GHz for Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1) and 3.34 – 3.57 GHz for WIMAX (IEEE 802.16).
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IJECT/61/SPL1/C2E2/0089