Vol 5.2-2 Apr-Jun2014

 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (IJECT)-VOL V ISSUE II, VER. 2 Apr TO June 2014


International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology Vol. 5 Issue 2, Ver. 2
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   27 Amelioration of Tracking Performance in a GPS Receiver of an Observation Satellite Using Adaptive Bandwidth
Dib Djamel Eddine, Djebbouri Mohamed, Taleb Ahmed Abddelmalik

Abstract
In this paper, we study the Doppler effect on a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver on board of an observation satellite that receives information on a carrier wave L1 frequency 1575.42 MHz .We simulated GPS signal acquisition. This allowed us to see the behavior of this type of receiver in AWGN channel (AWGN) and we describe the adaptive bandwidth algorithm to perform the tracking operation in the PLL when we are in a high dynamic stress .
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-147
   28 Adaptive Signal Decomposition Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Empirical Wavelet Transform
Ligi Elsa Cheriyan, Dr. P.Janardhanan

Abstract
Processing a signal in an adaptive manner finds application in various fields. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) are recently developed adaptive signal processing tools. These techniques decompose a signal accordingly to its contained information. The main issue with EMD is its lack of theory and in case of EWT a prior knowledge of the signal is required. IMF’s obtained as a result of applying EMD are quasi-orthogonal This paper suggest how to overcome these difficulties. For this Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure is applied to the IMF’s generated. The number of orthogonal components obtained determines the number of modes for applying EWT to the same signal. The proposed technique is applied to ECG signal and images.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-148
   29 Designing of Patch Antenna: A Review
Sachin Sharma, 2Kumar Goodwill, Avinash Kumar Dubey, Ravi Kumar Dhakad, M.V. Kartikeyan

Abstract
In this paper we have discussed the design techniques of rectangular, circular and triangular types of Microstrip Patch antennas. Their resonance frequency dependency on the structure of the antennas is also been discussed. Further we have given a thorough explanation of feeding techniques to these microstrip patch antennas and as well as dependency of gain and bandwidth of the antennas to the feeding techniques is also been discussed.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-149
   30 Content Based Image Retrieval Technique Using SVM Algorithm
Mohita Bansal, Balraj Singh Sidhu

Abstract
Content Based Image Retrieval Technique (CBIR) is an important technique which uses visual contents to retrieve images from large image database. Many traditional methods or techniques were employed. CBIR system helps to retrieve the images on based on low level features like texture, shape and color. An image may include both visual and semantic contents. Visual content descriptor can be either global or local. In this review paper, we will study Support Vector Machine Active learning Algorithm for Image Retrieval. This algorithm selects the most informative images based on user query and separates the most informative images from rest of database. It is used to find out the most accurate images and it is a fast technique. In this paper the use of SVM algorithm is discussed.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-150
   31 Design & Analysis of 4X4 SRAM Using Tanner Tool
Vishal Gupta, Vinita Chaudhary

Abstract
This paper explores the performance characterization of a Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) and the design validation of the 4X4 SRAM. The SRAM cell characterization includes Static Noise Margin, Write Margin. Design Validations include proper functioning of memory architecture which is validating by its read and write operation. Static Noise Margin (SNM) is the most important parameter for memory design. For demand of the highspeed application of the SRAM cell operation, supply voltage scaling is often used. We took different types of curve by which straight forwardly we could analyses the stability of the transistor of the SRAM cell for required specifications. . The variation of temperature has been also analyzed for SNM.WTV, WTI; SVNM & SINM is calculated using N-CURVE METHOD. The design is based upon the 250nm CMOS process technology and is simulated with the TANNER TOOL v14.1.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-151
   32 High speed Folding and Interpolation ADC using Current Steering Amplifier in CMOS 0.18-um Technolog
Rahul Kumar Baghel, Braj Bihari Soniry

Abstract
Folding and Interpolating analog to digital converter has importance with respect to conversion of high bandwidth analog signals into digital signal at intermediate resolution. This paper represents the design of 8-bit CMOS Folding and Interpolating ADC using current steering CMOS folding amplifier. This folding amplifier will reduce both the number of reference current sources as well as the power dissipation of CMOS folding amplifier. The main objective of paper is to design folding and interpolation ADC for medium resolution with minimum number of comparators and hardware. The folding amplifier are used to generate more zero-crossing point. Analog pre-processing block will reduce required number of comparator. The simulation results indicate that the ADC design with input signal frequency of 80 MHz and power dissipation of 51.76 mw using 180nm CMOS based Linear technology .
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-152
   33 GPS Touch Panel & Ultrasonic Sensors Based Autonomous Vehicle Prototype Designing
Anugrah Pandya, Shashank Mishra, Pankaj Tiwari, Nishant Singh Bisht, Shashank Tamrakar

Abstract
According to World Health Organization (WHO) about 1.24 million people die each year in a road traffic crashes, and in India at least 13 people die every hour in road accidents, and leading cause of death among young people, aged 15–29 years.The main cause of these road accidentsare reckless driving, yawing, careless driving, unaware of traffic rules, etc.This paper proposeddesigning of an Autonomous Vehicle, this vehicle is able to drive itselffrom starting location to desiredlocation with help of global positioning system navigation and other electronic sensors.This system helps to reduce the need of driver’s concentration because of sensors which reduces the probability of road accidents and this system is also useful for military application like autonomous tanks as well as spy bots, these type of vehicles are also used for monitoring purpose and wireless interface of this model provides an extra advantage of controlling.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-153
   34 Applications of UPFC Based on Improved Double Loop PI Controller in Photo Voltaic System
P.Rama Mohan Reddy, A.Sunil Kumar, S.Neelabai, B.Venkata Sai Sirish, G.Abhilash

Abstract
The mutation of solar irradiance can cause the output power of photovoltaic power plant to mutate, and it takes great changes to active power and reactive power which feed into the power grid. When the system security constraint is exceeded, the photovoltaic power plant will stop running. In this paper, the structure and the mathematical model of large grid-connected photovoltaic power plant are introduced; then an improved double loop PI decoupling control system is proposed based on the d-q model of UPFC parallel converter. On the basis of traditional PI control, DC load current is directly used as feed-forward control in the control system of capacitor voltage. It is not only easy to get feedback, but also conducive to design and operate the series controller and the parallel controller independently. Finally, this paper sets up a Simulink model of UPFC in the environment of Matlab/Simulink after analyzing its principle. And then, this model was applied into a three-phase system to observe its influences to power quality. The simulation results show that this control system based on the UPFC can effectively control the voltage and the power flow, maintain bus voltage and reduce reactive exchange. It can also improve the active photovoltaic power transmission, as well as maintaining the stability of the system.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-154
   35 Analysis of Different Algorithms for Beamforming of a Desired Signal Using Smart Antenna Technology
K.Yaswanth Krishna, J.Sai Mahesh Babu, A.Naga Rajesh, J.Kasi Pradeep

Abstract
The technology of smart antennas for mobile communication systems has received much interest in the last couple of years. A smart antenna combines antenna arrays with digital signal processing units in order to improve reception and emission radiation patterns dynamically in response to the signal environment. It can increase channel capacity, extend range coverage, steer multiple beams to track many mobiles. Even with the most powerful signal processors available today it is very challenging task because the computational complexity of the operations involved becomes very large if the number of array elements increases. There will be a growing need for developing efficient algorithms. The different beamforming algorithms (conventional, null-steering, optimal) and their MATLAB simulation results are presented in this study.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-155
   36 Compressed Sensing in Data Security
Surya Surendran, Rashmi H

Abstract
It is very important to secure digital multimedia like audio, image etc. while transmitting through an insecure channel. Many cryptographic and steganographic approaches are used to ensure data security. Compressed Sensing (CS) is a recently emerged technique which enables signals to be reconstructed even if it is sampled at a rate less than the Nyquist rate. CS also ensures security to the compressed signals i.e., CS can be seen as a technique for sensing, compressing and encrypting the data simultaneously. This paper compares Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and Iterative Hard Thresholding (IHT) algorithms for CS reconstruction. To ensure additional security SVD based steganography scheme is used.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-156
   37 Traffic Sign Detection Using Xilinx System Generator
Suraj Kumar Sharma, Prashant Mohan Trivedi, Jagriti Singh

Abstract
Image processing is a field which is mostly used in real-world application purpose for various domains like automobile. The main objective of this project is to develop an innovative active real time driver assistance system, which support the driver during the tedious task of identifying the large number of traffic signs as well as to accomplish a collision free driving atmosphere. In this paper we have aimed to create a system that will identify the traffic signs in different light intensity and various backgrounds from the real time video image which is taken by a video camera placed on a top of a car and that sign will be displayed on the LCD screen in steering section. The software is developed for color based (red & blue color) detection of traffic signs that extract the corresponding color information from the video image. After various image processing on FPGA hardware platform, operations like pixel labeling, threshold, segmentation, morphological operation, filtering etc finally the signs are identified.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-157
   38 A Review on Wimax System Performance Enhancement using Pilot Estimation and RRC Transreceiver Filter
Ankur Bindal, Deepak Kumar

Abstract
In recent times, there has been huge growth in the field of wireless networks. IEEE 802.16/WiMAX is the network which is designed with quality of service in mind. This study focuses on the Assessment of channel and also among different channels in WiMAX physical layer. IEEE 802.16 PHY interface variants are Wireless MAN, Wireless MAN OFDM, Wireless MAN OFDMA, and Wireless HUMAN Orthogonal frequency division multiple accesses is used by WiMAX on its physical layer. The signal is transmitted through the channel and it is received at the receiver closing stages. Then the receiver eliminates these additional bits in order to minimize the inter symbol interference, to improve the bit error rate via raised cosine filter. Nevertheless, an assortment of phenomena such as multipath wave propagation, time scattering, and fading cause’s inaccuracy like Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), and former distortions into the signals transmitted over wireless channel which will make the output less efficient.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-158
   39 Design and Simulation of Differential Dynamic Comparator For Low Power ADC Application
Munish Jain, Kuldeep Singh

Abstract
In this paper, a new low power dissipation dynamic comparator for high speed analog to digital application has been designed. Inputs are reconfigured from the typical differential pair comparator such that near equal current distribution in the input transistors can be achieved for a meta-stable point of the comparator. Restricted signal swing clock for the tail current is also used to ensure constant currents in the differential pairs. This comparator shows 70% (approx.)reduction in power dissipation and 10% (approx.) increase in speed when compared with the conventional lewis gray comparator [1].
This comparator exhibit high-speed and low power in its operation, which can be used for low power high speed ADC applications.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-159
   40 The Design of Circular Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA) for IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11ac
Ayangla Jamir, Padma.K.R

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a design of Circular Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA) with three slots etched ground plane as DGS. The defected ground structure concept is used to improve the bandwidth and impedance matching. The bandwidth 670MHz with respect to center frequency 5.395GHz which covers wireless bands such as IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11ac band. The percentage bandwidth of 12.78% and the average gain of 6.03dBi are achieved.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-160
   41 Effect of SINR in CDMA Power control
Rishu Bhatia, Dr. Raj Kumar

Abstract
CDMA System is defined as CODE DIVISIONAL MULTIPLE ACCESS SYSTEM. It is very effective system. In CDMA system, an important issue is Power control. There is requirement of effective power control so that capacity of the system can be increased to maximum limit. Power control algorithms used in telecommunication system are based on fixed step size, multiple step size algorithms. In this paper, effect of SINR (Signal to Interference +Noise ratio) in CDMA power control studied. In addition with the interference, effects from other transmitter range, there is additional noise present in the system that decreases the efficiency of the system. Effective power controlling helps in increasing the efficiency of the system.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-161
   42 Compact Broadband CMPA using DGS for Bandwidth Enhancement
Puneeth H J, C. Anil Kumar

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a design of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) with a rectangular slot etched ground plane as DGS. The defected ground structure concept is used to improve the bandwidth and impedance matching. The bandwidth is 0.99GHz with respect to center frequency 8.85GHz. The percentage bandwidth of 11.97% and the average gain of 3.06dBi are achieved.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-162
   43 Design and Performance Improvement Analysis of Direct Detection and Coherent Detection Based OFDM System
Arashid Ahmad Bhat, Iqra Rashid, Burhana Rasool, Essar Farooq, Khan Aasima

Abstract
The main aim of this paper is to first design an OFDM trans-Receiver system using Direct Detection Mechanism, Validate the simulated design, extract the various performance evaluating parameters & then evaluate the dependencies of these performance evaluating parameters onto various system parameters like Fiber length, Operating Frequencies, Channel spacing, & Source type. After that we redesigned the system using Coherent Detection Mechanism and again validated the design and evaluated the aforesaid dependencies. Then a mutual comparison of the two systems was carried out. The performance of the two systems was improved by separately Designing Three Dispersion & Distortion Compensation Techniques viz Pre DCF, Post DCF and Symmetrical DCF. Then a mutual comparison between Performances of the system without using any Compensation Techniques and with proper Compensation techniques was carried out. Thus after evaluating all the dependencies optimal set of system parameters was proposed at which the system yields its peak performance with minimum losses and better OSNR values.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-163
   44 Wideband RMPA using Defected Ground Structure for Enhancement in Bandwidth
Thejesh P, Panish D T, Nabeela Saleem H, Vidyashree K V, Ambika K

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a design of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) with a rectangular slot etched ground plane as DGS. The defected ground structure is used to improve the bandwidth and impedance matching. The bandwidth of 0.45GHz with respect to center frequency 6.995GHz is obtained. The percentage bandwidth of 6.43% and the average gain of 2.33dBi are achieved.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-164
   45 Split Rectangular Shape For Bandwidth Enhancement
Abhishek Kumar, Abhishek Laharia, Neelima Choudhary

Abstract
In this paper, the proposed Rectangular microstrip patch antenna is used for improving a bandwidth at 1.896 GHz. The bandwidth of the RMPA alone is 8.5 MHz and the return loss is -10.191 dB. The bandwidth of the proposed microstrip patch antenna is increased upto 20 MHz and the return loss is reduced up to -24.097 dB at 1.896 GHz. The proposed antenna is designed at a height 3.2 mm from the ground plane by using CST(computer simulationtechnology software) MICROWAVE STUDIO. The return loss of proposed antenna is reduced up to -24.097 dB at 1.896 GHz and bandwidth is increased upto 20 MHz. This proposed design has small size, easy to fabricate and better directivity.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-165
   46 Design of Circular Disc Printed Monopole Antenna for Enhanced Bandwidth
Vidya Hiremath, Aruna

Abstract
In this paper, the proposed Rectangular microstrip patch antenna is used for improving a bandwidth at 1.896 GHz. The bandwidth of the RMPA alone is 8.5 MHz and the return loss is -10.191 dB. The bandwidth of the proposed microstrip patch antenna is increased upto 20 MHz and the return loss is reduced up to -24.097 dB at 1.896 GHz. The proposed antenna is designed at a height 3.2 mm from the ground plane by using CST(computer simulationtechnology software) MICROWAVE STUDIO. The return loss of proposed antenna is reduced up to -24.097 dB at 1.896 GHz and bandwidth is increased upto 20 MHz. This proposed design has small size, easy to fabricate and better directivity.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-166
   47 Implementation of a NOR Gate Using Photonic Transistor Logic
Mamta Kumari, G.R. Meena

Abstract
optical NOR gate using a photonic transistor logic with a response speed of 120 Gb/s. The photonic transistor logic is based on a heterojunction configuration, similar to a semiconductor optical amplifier operation. The designed circuit is also suitable for construction of N-nary digital logic gates.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-167
   48 The Design of Circular Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA) for Wideband Characteristics
Shalini S, Priyanka R, Anantharamu I.V, Laxman Veera Avinash P, Ravi kiran H K

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a design of Circular Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA) with a circular slot etched ground plane as DGS. The defected ground structure concept is used to improve the bandwidth and impedance matching. The bandwidth 790MHz with respect to center frequency 5.505GHz which covers wireless bands such as IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11ac band. The percentage bandwidth of 15.64% and the average gain of 5.17dBi are achieved.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-168
   49 Design and Implementation of Imprecise Multipliers
Sandeep Kr. Singh, Anshul Jain

Abstract
Mainstream of the work in probabilistic or inaccurate low-power design has focused on adders and their derivative systems. Multipliers on the other hand are one of the primary sources of power consumption in DSP applications such as Finite-Impulse-Response (FIR) filters. Multiplication is a heavily used arithmetic operation and figure-out, speed, cost, and power of the application. This work focuses on low-power approximate multiplier architectures. Our objective is to introduce error into the multiplier by manipulating its logic function, using the 2×2 multiplier as a building block. The motivation behind this logic was the observation of the output of 2×2-bit multiplier where for only one case number of output lines are 4 for rest of the case it was three or less. So we can design an imprecise multiplier in which it will provide the output 111 instead of 1001 with much less complicated circuit and much less propagation delay on the cost of error probability of 1/16 for error-tolerate-applications. With small loss in accuracy, it provides tremendous improvement in power, delay and area.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-169
   50 Compact Broadband Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications
Sandhya S Rao, Vinutha M R

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a design of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA) with a rectangular slot etched ground plane and patch as DGS and DMS respectively. The Defected Ground Structure (DGS) concept is used to improve the bandwidth and impedance matching, Defected Mount Surface (DMS) also supports for bandwidth enhancement. The bandwidth is 0.35GHz with respect to center frequency 2.475GHz. The percentage bandwidth of 14.14% and the average gain of 2.86dBi are achieved.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-170
   51 Managing Passenger’s Safety in Motor Vehicles by Using Embedded Circuitry With Zigbee Interface
Swati Bhattacharjee

Abstract
Excessive population, inadequate supply of essensial services, and corrupted administration, apathetic or lack political will have resulted in lowest level of public safety in our country while travelling in trains, buses, cars etc. The most important reasons for the present state of affairs are related to management, administration and most importantly technology. This project describes in short a low cost and sustainable method for uplifting the passenger’s safety without much ado’s.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-171
   52 Bandwidth Enhanced Circular Printed Monopole Antenna for Wireless Applications
Dhanush Chandan H.S, Amarnatha Gowda T, Kavitha, Vibha R Chandra, Yogeesh G.H

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a design of Circular Printed Monopole Antenna with a circular slot etched ground plane as DGS. The defected ground structure concept is used to improve the bandwidth and impedance matching. The bandwidth 180MHz with respect to center frequency 5.59GHz. The percentage bandwidth of 3.4% and the average gain of 3.8dBi are achieved.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-172
   53 Designing and Simulation of 15 to 20GHz Broadband Conical Horn Antenna With High Gain, Suppressed Side Lobes, Good VSWR, for Satellite and Space Communication Using Ansoft HFSS
Gurpinder Singh, Deepinder Singh, Jashanpreet Singh

Abstract
This paper discusses the designing & Simulation of 15 to 20GHz broadband conical horn antenna with high gain, suppressed side lobes, good VSWR for satellite and space communication. The procedure is straight forward, and disposes the physical dimensions of a conical horn that induce the performance of the antenna. The length, flare angle, aperture diameter of the conical antenna is inspected. These dimensions will actuate the required characteristics such as impedance matching, radiation pattern of the antenna. The electromagnetic performance of the antenna is then measured using High Frequency structure simulator (HFSS) Software. The measured results of the conical antenna confirmed the simulation results and satisfied the design requirement. In view of this paper, the measured results show that this antenna has gain of 16 to19.5dB and VSWR <1.5 and suppressed side losses level of -38dB. A conical horn antenna is being developed into high gain and good VSWR from the TE11 mode in the feeding circular waveguide. Simulation for horn antenna has been done on Ansoft HFSSv11. Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-173
   54 Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna using DGS for Mobile Applications
Arpith P C, Abishek M K, Ranjini H A, Shilpa S R, Lokesh H R

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a design of Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna (CMPA) with a rectangular slot etched ground plane as DGS. The Defected Ground Structure (DGS) concept is used to relocation of resonant frequency and improve the bandwidth and impedance matching. The bandwidth 50MHz with respect to center frequency 1.83GHz. The percentage bandwidth of 2.73% and the average gain of 4.08dBi are achieved.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-174
   55 Wireless Agriculture System Using Zigbee
Prashant Chauhan, Prem Prakash, Ranjan Kumar, M.V.Patil

Abstract
Today water saving and automation is a key issue of agriculture. This paper presents a remote monitoring system for agriculture using zigbee and lpc 2148 microcontroller. The system provides a wireless methodology to establish large-scale remote intelligent irrigation system for agriculture and put forth automation that uses in-field sensor-based irrigation systems that would provide a potential solution to support enhanced water management. The system overcome problems such as poor real time data acquisition, excessive manpower requirement and shortcoming of the wired system such as complex wiring. Thus allows farmers to maximize their productivity along with efficient use of water. The long-time smooth and proper running of the system in the field proved its high reliability and practicability.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-175
   56 Novel Compact Rectangular Monopole using Defected Ground Structure Technique
Madhusudan N, Kavya. P

Abstract
In this paper, we propose a design of Rectangular Printed Monopole antenna with a circular slot etched ground plane as DGS. The defected ground structure concept is used to improve the bandwidth and impedance matching. The bandwidth 173MHz with respect to center frequency 5.04GHz. The percentage bandwidth of 3.42% and the average gain of 4.06dBi are achieved.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-176
   57 Low Power VLSI Design CNTL Technique For Combinatiok,nal Circuit Design
Dr. SSGill, Varun Gautam

Abstract
With much of the research efforts directed towards increasing the speed of digital systems, present day technologies possess computing capabilities that make possible powerful personal workstations, sophisticated computer graphics, and multimedia capabilities such as real-time speech recognition and real-time video. High-speed computation has thus become the expected norm for the average user, instead of being the province of the few with access to a powerful mainframe. Likewise, another significant change in the attitude of users is the desire to have access to this computation at any location, without the need to be physically tethered to a wired network. The requirement of portability thus places a severe restriction on size, weight and power. Power is particularly important since conventional nickel-cadmium battery technology only provides small amount of energy for each pound of weight. Improvements in battery technology are being made, but it is unlikely that a dramatic solution to the power dissipation is forth coming. Although the traditional mainstay of portable digital applications has been in low power, low throughput uses such as wristwatches and pocket calculators, there are an ever increasing number of portable applications requiring low power and high throughput. For example, notebook and laptop computers, representing the fastest growing segment of the computer industry, are demanding the same computations capabilities as found in
desktop machines.
Equally demanding are developments in Personal Communications Services (PCS), such as the current generation of digital cellular telephony networks which employ complex speech compression algorithms and sophisticated radio modems in a pocket sized device. Even more dramatic are the proposed future PCS applications, with universal portable multimedia access supporting full motion digital video and control via speech recognition. In these applications, not only will voice be transmitted via wireless links, but data as well. This will facilitate new services such as multimedia access supporting database access and supercomputing for simulation and design, through an intelligent network which allows communication with these services or other people at any other place and time. Power for video compression and decompression and speech recognition must be added to the portable unit to support these services. Indeed, it is apparent that portability can no longer be associated with low throughput; instead, vastly increasing capabilities, accuracy in excess of that demanded of fixed workstations, must be placed in low power environment. Even when low power is available in non portable applications, the issue of low power design is becoming critical. Until now, this power consumption has not been of great concern, since large packages, cooling fins, and fans have been capable of dissipating the generated heat. However, as the density and size of the chips and systems continue to increase, the difficulty in providing adequate cooling might either add significant cost to the system or provide a limit on the amount of functionality that can be provided. Thus, it is evident that methodologies for the design of high throughput, low-power digital systems are needed. Fortunately, there are clear technological trends that give us a new degree of freedom, so that it may be possible to satisfy these eemingly contradictory requirements. Scaling of device feature sizes, along with the development high density, low parasitic packaging, such as multichip modules, will alleviate the overriding concern with number of transistors being used. The important consideration, particularly in portable applications, is that many computations tasks are likely to be real-time; the radio modem, speech and video compression, and speech recognition require computation that is always at near-peak rates. Conventional schemes for conserving power in laptops, which are generally based on power-down schemes, are not appropriate for these continually active computations.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-177
   58 Sliding Mode Control With Dead Time Compensation for a Conical Tank Level Process
Rakesh M K, Satheesh Babu R, I Thirunavukkarasu

Abstract
In this paper, a Sliding Mode Control (SMC) scheme for a nonlinear level process is designed and implemented. A dead time compensation scheme is included in the control scheme to reduce effect of the dead time associated with the process. A conical tank level process is the considered plant for this work. The servo and regulatory responses of the closed loop system are observed and discussed in this paper.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-178
   59 A Review on Content Based Image Retrieval System and its Emerging Trends for Medical Images
Simrat Khokhar, Dr. K.S. Mann

Abstract
The Retrieval of the medical images is proving itself the easiest and appropriate way of diagnosing the patient having history or resembling history with some other patient in the residing Database. Searching from those systems quick detailed and relevant data or images are the aim of the Prevailing Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) System. In past developing years, there were many sources or working base concepts in the hierarchy for the retrieval system of the medical images. In comparison the most Promising way of retrieving medical images is based on content known by Content Based Image Retrieval that is given as query by the user. Statistical results show that CBIR system has higher precision results. It has been enhanced in various way to achieve more satisfactory results. In this paper various techniques are compared that has been used to increase the precision rate of retrieval for the desired medical image.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-179
   60 Remote Patient Monitoring using Telemedicine Healthcare System
Navjot Kaur Sekhon, Dr. K.S. Mann

Abstract
This paper describes an overview of the telemedicine healthcare systems with its background and also describes the relationship between the related terms like ehealth, telehealth, mhealth, telemedicine and telecare where tele mean a distance.A telemedicine health care system has been proposed and implemented to support remote patient monitoring. All these terms specifies that we monitor the patient’s health or care at distance with various telecommunication techniques by which care of delivery increases. The use of the proposed system is suitable for remote continuous long-term patient monitoring in hospital or at home, as a part of a diagnostic procedure during recovery.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-180
   61 Eye Fundus Image Analysis For Automatic Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy
Charu Sharma, Geeta Kaushik

Abstract
Automated detection of lesions in retinal images can assist in early diagnosis and screening of a common disease: Diabetic Retinopathy. A robust and computationally efficient approach for the localization of the different features and lesions in a fundus retinal image is presented in this page. Since many features have common intensity properties, geometric features and correlations are used to distinguish between them. A new constraint for optic disk detection is proposed where the major blood vessels are detected first and then their intersection is used to find the approximate location of the optic disk. This is further localized using colour properties. It is also shown that many of the features such as the blood vessels, exudates and microaneurysms and hemorrhages can be detected quite accurately using different morphological operations applied appropriately.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-181
   62 PAPR Analysis of OFDM and SC-FDMA System using Partial Transmit Sequence Technique
Pooja Yadav, Deepak Kedia

Abstract
High PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) is the most challenging issue in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system. In this paper, we review OFDM system and Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) system with interleaved subcarrier mapping and analyze their PAPR performance with PAPR reduction technique Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS). The results shows that SC-FDMA provides lower PAPR than OFDM and PTS technique is also significantly improves PAPR performance of both OFDM and SC-FDMA systems. PTS technique exhibits better performance with increasing number of sub-blocks.
Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-182
   63 Designing and Simulation of Ka Band Circularly Polarized Conical Horn Antenna With High Directivity, High Gain, Low Return Losses, Good VSWR for Radio Astronomy and Remote Sensing Applications Using Ansoft HFSS
Jagmeet Singh, Hardeep Singh, Jashanpreet Singh

Abstract
This paper expresses the design and simulation of conical horn antenna in Ka band. In this paper we have designed the light weight, compact size and high directivity Circularly Polarized Conical Horn Antenna with high Directivity, high Gain, low return losses, good VSWR for Radio astronomy and remote sensing applications. The layout is very simple and depicts the dimensions of conical horn antenna that expresses the performance of conical horn antenna. In this we have varied the length, flare angle, aperture diameter of the conical antenna. These dimensions will explain the required features such as impedance matching, radiation pattern of the horn antenna. The electromagnetic accuracy of the antenna is measured with the help of High Frequency structure simulator (HFSS) Software. The restore results of the conical antenna confirmed the simulation results and satisfied the design requirement. In view of this paper, the measured results show that this antenna has gain 21 db and VSWR< 1.03 and return losses are -39db and the value of suppressed side lobe losses level is -44db. Simulation of horn antenna has been done on Ansoft HFSSv11. Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-183
   64 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols to Access Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks
Neelima Arora, Charanjit Singh

Abstract
Rapid pace of improving technology in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) made it possible to manufacture low power, multifunctional sensor nodes. WSN is the set of small power energy confined sensor nodes which can be deployed in unapproachable domains. In WSN biggest constraint is to employ an efficient power consumption scheme. Different protocols were described for WSN out of which the research has been done on hierarchical (clustering) protocols to find out longer network lifetime. In this paper, we analyze two different types of routing protocols: Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) and Power Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information System (PEGASIS) .Sensor networks are simulated using MATLAB. Both protocols were analyzed for network lifetime The simulation results shows that PEGASIS outperforms LEACH protocol and PEGASIS reduce energy consumption, prolongs network lifetime and also supports large networks.
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IJECT/52/2/A-184
   65 Various Techniques For Image Denoising
Taruna Grover, Gagandeep Kaur

Abstract
Images play an important role in conveying important information but the images received after transmission are often corrupted and deviate from the original value. The major factor that reduces the quality of the image is noise. It hides the important details of images and changes value of image pixels at key locations causing blurring and various other deformities. We have to remove noises from the images without loss of any image information. Noise removal is the preprocessing stage of image processing. There are many types of noises which corrupt the images. These noises are appeared on images in different ways: at the time of acquisition due to noisy sensors, due to faulty scanner or due to faulty digital camera, due to transmission channel errors, due to corrupted storage media. The image needs image denoising before it can be used in applications to obtain correct results. Many image denoising algorithms exist none of them is universal and their performance largely depends on the type of image and the type of noise. This paper compiles various techniques which have been used for image denoising.
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IJECT/52/2/A-185
   66 A Combined DWT-DCT Video Compression With Keyframe Extraction
Preeti. V. Kudasomannavar, Vineeta. P. Gejji

Abstract
Video compression plays an important role in real-time video conferencing applications. Video compression technique is now mature as is proven by the large number of applications that make use of DWT and DCT technology. DCT and DWT are the most commonly used transformation. DCT has high energy compaction property and requires less computational resources. On the other hand, DWT is mutli-resolution transformation DCT are introduction of false contouring effects and blocking artifacts at higher compression, and, that of DWT is requirement of large computational resources. But standalone DCT introduces false contouring effects and blocking artifacts at higher compression, and, that of DWT requires large computational resources. Hence in order to benefit the respective strengths of individual popular coding schemes and to overcome their standalone disadvantages, the proposed method uses the combined DWT-DCT approach. The simulation results show that the combined DWT-DCT performs much better then the standalone DCT and DWT. Also in the proposed method in order to improve the performance of combined approach, Riesz-transform based Feature SIMilarity index (RFSIM) is used to extract the similar frames from the video sequence.
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IJECT/52/2/A-186
   67 RF Oscillator Based on Band Pass Filter Using Active Inductors
Madhumita Singh, Zoonubiya Ali, Sanjeev M. Ranjan

Abstract
Voltage controlled oscillator is crucial component of many communication system such as RF communication system. This paper present a RF oscillator based on band pass filter using active inductors which is designed in 90nm CMOS technology with frequency of 5 GHz. This oscillator results is closer to LC oscillator and ring oscillator both. As a result tuning range increases to 0 to 1.2V and power consumption is 0.24mW.
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IJECT/52/2/A-187
   68 Comparison of CMOS 8-Bit Comparator for Low Power Application using 180nm Technology
Jasbir Kaur, Sanjay Singh Saroch

Abstract
In this paper we have compared two different designs for 8 bit comparators, one is conventional and other is low power comparator. First of all we have implemented 1 bit conventional comparator and using this we have implemented 8 bit comparator. The circuit produces 2 outputs X and Y. Output X is active when A > B and X is non-active when A =B or A < B. For the case when A=B, the output Y is active otherwise we will take Y as inactive when A < B. Our approach is to implement 1 bit comparator as one component and then generate its symbol to design 8 bit comparator. From the comparison of the results we can see that power is reduced by 63% and area is reduced by 18.05% in low power comparator in comparison with conventional comparator. All the simulations are performed using cadence software at 180nm technology. Full Paper

IJECT/52/2/A-188
   69 Image Compression Techniques
Rajeshwar Dass, Priya

Abstract
Image Compression plays a vital role in various applications involving storage and transmission of data in multimedia, documents, video conferencing and medical imaging etc. It is preferred choice as it reduces memory storage and transmission bandwidth. This paper reviews various lossy and lossless image compression techniques and different performance analysis parameters which are used to evaluate the performance of image compression techniques.
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IJECT/52/2/A-189