Vol 5.3-1 Jul-Sep2014

 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (IJECT)-VOL 5.3-1, July to Sep 2014


International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology Vol 5.3-1
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   1 Clock Gated Power Efficient Single Edge Triggered Flip-Flop Design for Low Data Activity Applications
Imran Ahmed Khan, Mirza Tariq Beg

Abstract
In this paper, a new clock gated single edge-triggered flip-flop has been proposed. The proposed flip-flop reduces power consumption by reducing the clock switching power that was wasted otherwise.
Unlike many other gated flip-flops, the proposed gated flip-flop has state retention property to save power and to switch circuit between idle and active modes smoothly. The simulation results show that for all supply voltages and all clock frequencies, the proposed flip-flop has the least power dissipation among all the
designs for low switching activities. As compared to the existing flip-flops, the proposed flip-flop has up to 10.95 times power improvement for low data activity and up to 110.80 times power improvement if the input is idle. However, for 100% data activity, the proposed FF consumes up to 9.14 times power than the existing
flip-flops. The proposed clock gated flip-flop structure is best suited for applications where input signal switching activity is low and speed is not a crucial factor.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-190
   2 Design and Analysis of Waveguide Based RF Phase Shifter in Integrated Optics for Microwave Photonic Applications
Rajini V Honnungar, T Srinivas

Abstract
A design and analysis of an integrated optical waveguide based delay line at wavelengths of 1.55 µm is presented here. It can be used for phase shifter applications. Integrated photonic devices take advantage of the fabrication of miniature components using channel waveguides in the size of micrometers. Since phase shifters are widely used for RF applications, it results in a Microwave Photonics platform. Phase shifts in the range of 0 to 2pi radians can be obtained. These optical phase shifts are transferred to RF domain by heterodyning. Differential path lengths between Straight waveguides and curved waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3
generate differential phaseshifts. We have also optimized the parameters of the 1-bit delay line for least losses, which can be further extended to n-bit delay lines.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-191
   3 Design and Implementation of Multi-protocol Gateway for Complex Embedded Systems
Vunnam Ramakrishna, Nomula Srinivas

Abstract
The multi-protocol integration for an embedded system is one of the major research topic. The protocols have been serial communicating as they are regularly used in embedded boards.
UART is tested by interfacing the main embedded board with the computer. I2C drivers are developed to read the RTC and displayed on LCD. The SPI drivers were developed to interface memory in which the data typed is stored. As this is interfacing the devices of smaller size, power or low I/O count, makes application in the portable systems [9]. And lastly CAN drivers are developed and tested for data transfer from one transceiver to another. The gateway is developed and tested for trans-communication between UART to UART or I2C or SPI or CAN. The main advantage of this protocol is the gateway is very useful in communicating between one protocol to another protocol in a heterogeneous systems
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-192
   4 A Comparative Analysis of AODV and HAODV
Sudhir Singh, Rajeshwar Singh

Abstract
In this paper the focus is on the performance study of three routing protocols, namely AODV and HAODV. We call these protocols AODV family of protocols as both protocols AODV is the base routing protocol upon which HAODV protocol is improved. Even though AODV and HAODV are not different protocols, we wanted to see if there is any improvement in using the HAODV implementation for a wireless network environment. Both protocols are simulated using NS-2. We also claim that our work is the first of its kind to study and compare the performance of both routing protocols from a wireless network point of view by extensively using various performance metrics like packet delivery ratio, average network delay, network throughput and Normalized routing load etc.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-193
   5 Advanced Cryptographic Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm for Secure Telemedicine Communication.
Nirdesh Jain, Ravi Mohan

Abstract
Medical Image content security is very important for tele-diagnosis and tele-surgery. Medicinal images can be made more secure by using enhanced watermarking technique; it allows us to embed the related information with the image, which provides secrecy, integrity and validation by embedding encrypted digital signature with the image. In this paper we propose the water marking of medical image is done in DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) domains and for encryption we use XOR transform operation. It is a technique of blind watermarking. So, the original image is not mandatory at the time of watermark recovery. Because we insert final watermark in DWT domain, so this procedure is robust against many attacks.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-194
   6 A Cut Above High Speed Communications Via Wireless Technologies.
Rohit Seth

Abstract
With the need of the access to business information sources and web applications – such as shopper service, financial dealings, wireless e-mail, instant messaging, mobile commerce and location sensitive web browsing no matter where we are at that current time, requires faster wireless networks & the technology based on that particular wireless technologies according to the demands of the various users and their satisfaction relates to them as in today era people are using technologies like android, I phone technologies which are using different types of wireless apps and technologies to provide numbers of services for the user benefits which all are available today. These wireless services must be delivered faster and at prices that are not exceptionally higher than prices of wire line & broadband services. Wire line communications for the Internet either exists or is being updated to meet the increasing demand of users. But wireless Internet is presenting an important challenge to network designers. A few network communications engineer are convinced that the realistic review of increase in higher speed wireless networks lies due to hybrid infrastructure. If there is the internet connection available, there is only one problem to be solved for wireless access – the last mile wireless access to the wire line infrastructure. It can only be happens by applying various types of wireless resources available in the markets of today scenario as technology is increasing day by day. Broadband networks achieve this through a line of sight wireless connection between any two points (point to point) or multiple points (multipoint). Broadband technology is becoming an important mode of wireless network solution to connect distant enterprises to the Internet bypassing traditional connections available. It has an important role of serving businesses and even households. Keywords: Wireless, Metworks, Communications, Data, Speed, Technologies, Importance, Voice, Transfers.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-195
   7 Post-Accident Analysis Using Wireless Communication.
Pulkit Gupta, Rajat Kachhwaha, Piyush Bhatia, Deependra Singh Rao

Abstract
The number of people who get injured or killed in hit and run cases has increased all over the world. Generally these accidents take place on national highways, where the speed of cars is normally fast. So the accused flees from the spot after the collision, which makes it challenging for the cops to catch the guilty party. The best way to catch the offender would be that if the vehicle number of the fleeing offender is recorded so that the culprit can be traced by the police easily. This problem can be solved if there is some kind of automatic system present in vehicles which records the fundamental parameters immediately and automatically. This system will make it easier to uniquely identify the vehicle that was the main offender in a particular crash. The moment the accident takes place, a message is sent about the crash through GSM/GPS to the nearest hospital with its location. Assistance is provided accordingly to the victim. An ambulance can then reach the accident site as soon as possible, without delay. This would also be quite helpful. This following paper explores a possible solution to this problem, using the Wireless Technologies like “Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), Global Positioning System (GPS) and crash sensors”.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-196
   8 SDH- Legacy and Scope.
Garima Anand, Gautam Wadhawan, Gaurav Wadhawan

Abstract
Telecom industry is almost eternal. The increased penetration of mobile phones and internet has increased the data traffic by 40-50% per year. Scientists are struggling to excogitate new technologies or amend those already in service. Advent of digitization and optical fiber transmission revolutionized the world of communication. It has made the data transmission fast and almost error free. Numerous networks hierarchy had been developed. In this paper
we will discuss the legacy and the future of the SDH technology. The first generation was PDH for the transmission of digital data over optical fiber, which was easily replaced by its predecessor SDH. PDH and SDH both are ITU-T standards designed to handle the high capacity networks. They can work over microwave and optical fiber with microwave supporting 16E1 for PDH and only till 63E1 i.e. STM-1 for SDH, other higher order signals are only carried over optical fiber media. The constant increase of data traffic over voice traffic required those technologies which can transport mix data. The journey of data rates from 2.048Mbps to more than 400Gbps is also explored in this paper.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-197
   9 Performance Evaluation of Illumination Normalization Techniques for Invariant Face Recognition
M.Parisa Beham, S.M.Mansoor Roomi, J.Alageshan, V. Kapileshwaran

Abstract
Face recognition and authentication are two significant and dynamic research issues in computer vision applications. There are many factors that should be accounted for face recognition; among them pose variation is a major challenge which severely influence in the performance of face recognition. In order to improve the performance, several research methods have been developed to perform the face recognition process with pose invariant conditions
in constrained and unconstrained environments. In this paper, we analyzed the performance of a popular texture descriptors viz., Local Binary Pattern, Local Derivative Pattern and Histograms of Oriented Gradients for pose invariant problem. State of the art preprocessing techniques such as Discrete Cosine Transform,Difference of Gaussian, Multi Scale Retinex and Gradient face have also been applied before feature extraction. In the recognition
phase K- nearest neighbor classifier is used to accomplish the classification task. To evaluate the efficiency of pose invariant face recognition algorithm three publicly available databases viz. UMIST, ORL and LFW datasets have been used. The above said databases have very wide pose variations and it is proved that the state of the art method is efficient only in constrained situations.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-198
   10 Regression Analysis of Kp, Ap and Cp Indices for Solar Cycle 24
Debojyoti Halder

Abstract

The characteristics of the planetary geomagnetic indices are correlated directly to the level of solar activity. The data obtained from various sources are sorted and plotted periodically after processing. Regression analysis of the indices data has been done meticulously. The regression analysis data are also plotted as residual plots and line fit plots. It appears that the solar and geomagnetic activity level during 2009 to 2012 is in the rising
phase while geomagnetic indices have a falling trend in comparison to other three cycles. This regression analysis results support our previous study in this context.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-199
   11 Secure and Energy-Efficient Collaborative Image Transmission Over Wireless Sensor Networks
Amandeep Sharma, Dr. Parvinder Kaur

Abstract

In this paper a secure and energy efficient image transmission strategy is proposed for wireless sensor networks. In the proposed scheme we use Select Back Decode and Forward (SBDF) collaborative scheme. A relay node is introduced between the source and destination node by forwarding only a lowerresolution version of the original image, obtained via discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The simulation results show that the proposed collaborative strategy is more energy efficient than cooperative single-hop, multi-hop and Select Decode and Forward (SDF) scheme. Here, Biometric features are used to implement steganography objects in an image using Hue, Saturation and Value (HSV). To do this a secret data is embedded within skin region of image that will provide an excellent secure location for data hiding. It is clear from the results that the proposed approach gives higher security and energy efficient network and also satisfactory Peak- Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR). This securely and efficiently processed image can be transmitted using
collaborative communication over wireless sensor network.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-200
   12 An Improved Low Power VCO Design With Differential Inverter Cells and FVC
Ashutosh Gupta, Jaikaran Singh, Sanjay Rathore

Abstract

This paper presents a Low Power Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) utilizing three CMOS Differential Inverter Cell based Ring Oscillator designand aFrequency to Voltage Converter in negative feedback loop. The differential cell reduces the jitter due tocommon mode flickers due to power supply fluctuations or inter stage coupling while the negative feedback from FVCstabilizes the performance at high frequencies and so reduces the jitter at
high frequencies. Finally the proposed model is designed using CMOS 0.18um foundry technologyand simulated usingMicrowind and P-Spice software. The result shows that the proposed design improves the jitter attenuation at different offset frequencies and requires only 1.3mW of power.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-201
   13 Triple Band Microstrip EDGE Serated Rectangular Patch Antenna on Silicon Substrate For L & S Band Applications
S. Daya Murali, B. Gopi Krishna, K. Sri Harsha, J.V.D.S. Karthikeya, K. Sai Varma

Abstract

Recent trends in the field of wireless communications use L and S-band frequencies. In order to meet these requirements in this paper we have designed a microstrip edge serrated rectangular patch antenna used for these applications. Here we have used silicon as substrate which has a relative permittivity of 11.9. This antenna was energized by using coaxial feed. The proposed model was designed by using a software HFSS.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-202
   14 BER Analysis of Various Modulation Techniques Over Alamouti Space Time Coding in MIMO-OFDM
Aarti Yadav, Savitri Katariya

Abstract

Recent trends in the field of wireless communications use L and S-band frequencies. In order to meet these requirements in this paper we have designed a microstrip edge serrated rectangular patch antenna used for these applications. Here we have used silicon as substrate which has a relative permittivity of 11.9. This antenna was energized by using coaxial feed. The proposed model was designed by using a software HFSS.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-203
   15 Top Level Designing & Implementing of Cryptosystem For Convolutional Encoder & Adaptive Viterbi
Decoder by VLSI Module

SK.Karimulla, M.Chandramohan Reddy, Kante Murali

Abstract

Convolution codes are widely used in many communication systems due to their excellent error-control performance. It is an essential component of wireless communication systems such as the third generation (3G) mobile systems, which utilize some formulation of Convolutional encoding usually decoded via Viterbi decoders. High-speed Viterbi decoders for convolutional codes are of great interest for high-data-rate applications. The use of error-correcting codes has proven to be an effective way to overcome data corruption in digital communication channels. Although widely-used, the most popular communications decoding algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, requires an exponential increase in hardware complexity to achieve greater decode accuracy. In this paper, we describe the analysis and implementations of a pipelined & reduced-complexity decode approach, the adaptive Viterbi algorithm (AVA). Our AVA design is implemented Today’s data reconstruction in digital communication systems requires designs of highest throughput rate. Look ahead technique is studied for extracting vectorized output bits without taking into consideration the hardware cost involved. It improves the
throughput rate. Implementation parameters for the decoder have been determined through simulation and the decoder has been implemented on a Xilinx FPGA SPARTAN 3E Kit. We believe that due to its advanced features this new pipelined architecture has considerable application in future networks where different decoding standards shall have to be supported on a single device.

Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-204
   16 Design and Performance Analysis of Electromagnetic Band Gap Square Microstrip Patch Antenna
Krishnananda, Hariprasad S A, Rukmini T S

Abstract

The scope of this paper is to present a systematic and versatile method, with minimal computational requirements, that incorporates the use of new Electromagnetic Bandgap (EBG) structures. The proposed design is evaluated using the High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). Simulated results are presented for a hollow cylindrical EBG structure with square microstrip antenna operating at GPS frequency 2.45GHz.

Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-205
   17 EDGE Preserving in Image Super Resolution Using Preconditioning Method
A.Muni Krishna, Kante Murali

Abstract

We intend a simple preconditioning method for accelerating the solution of edge-preserving image Super-Resolution (SR) problems in which a linear shift-invariant point spread function is employed. Our technique involves reordering the High- Resolution (HR) pixels in a similar manner to what is done in preconditioning methods for quadratic SR formulations. The edge preserving requirements are the Hessian matrix of the cost function varies during the minimization process. We develop an efficient update scheme for the preconditioner in order to cope with this situation. In addition, we describe a technique for preconditioning SR problems involving rational magnification factors. The use of such factors is motivated in part by the fact that, under certain circumstances, optimal SR zooms are nonintegers. We show that, by reordering the pixels of the LR images, the structure of the
problem to solve is modified in such a way that preconditioners based on circulant operators can be used.

Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-206
   18 Design of Advanced Microprocessor Bus Architecture (AMBA) with Arbitration Scheme for ARM
Processor using VHDL

Shraddha Singh, Adesh Kumar, Aakanksha Devrari, Amit Kumar

Abstract

The paper focuses on designing of AMBA with arbitration scheme for ARM Processor to reduce the priority suffering problem among devices during communication. On-chip communication architecture plays an important part in observing the overall performance of the System-on-Chip (SoC) design. The
communication architecture should be flexible in the resource sharing mechanism of SoC to offer better performance over a wide range of traffic. The high priority components may have large latency, while the low priority components may have starvation. The traditional communication bus-distribution algorithms, for example the static fixed priority and the round robin/TDM, explain several faults that are bus starvation and low system performance
due to latency in bus distribution in a bus cycle time. The lottery bus arbiter scheme such as static & dynamic already have shown efficiency over conventional methods. This paper presents AMBA using user control arbitration scheme based on a probability bus distribution algorithm. The architecture is model in VHDL andModelsim10.2 (MXE) tool is used for functional and logic verification of each block. The Xilinx Synthesis Technology (XST) of Xilinx ISE 14.2i tool is used for synthesis of transmitter and receiver using Virtex 5 FPGA.

Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-207
   19 Least Complex S-Box and Light weight Concurrent Fault Detection Scheme for AES Algorithm
N.Sai Kumar, J.Sunil Kumar, K.Murali

Abstract

Fault attacks are powerful and efficient cryptanalysis techniques to find the secret key of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. These attacks are based on injecting faults into the structure of the AES to obtain the confidential information. To protect the AES implementation against these attacks, a number of countermeasures have been proposed. In this paper, we propose a fault detection scheme for the Advanced Encryption Standard. We present its details implementation in each transformation of the AES. The simulation results show that the fault coverage achieves 99.999% for the proposed scheme. Moreover, the proposed fault detection scheme has been implemented on Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. For increasing the fault exposure, the predicted parities of each of the block S-box and inverse S-box are obtained. The multi-bit parity prediction approach has low cost and high error coverage than the approaches using single bit parities. The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of the fault detection structure has
better hardware and time complexities.

Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-208
   20 Dual Resonant Circular Slotted Reduced Ground Microstrip Patch Antenna Design for
Bluetooth and Imt Applications

Ekambir Sidhu

Abstract

In this paper, a dual resonant MPA capable of operating in a frequency range of 1.9 GHz to 3.1 GHz, have been proposed. The antenna has been designed using substrate of FR4 material having dielectric constant of 4.4 with slotted radiating patch and a reduced ground plane. The ground plane has been reduced to improve the antenna performance in terms of bandwidth. The feed line has to be of suitable width so as to match the antenna impedance with
the port impedance. The antenna performance has been analyzed in terms of various antenna parameters such as return loss (dB), impedance bandwidth (GHz), gain (dB), directivity (dBi) and VSWR. The antenna has been designed and simulated using CST Microwave Studio 2010. The designed MPA is suitable to be used for Bluetooth and IMT applications. The antenna has resonant frequencies of 2.3 GHz and 2.7 GHz, bandwidth of 1.1042 GHz and VSWR is less than maximum acceptable value of 2. The antenna has been fabricated, tested and it has been observed that the practical results obtained by testing the fabricated antenna using Network analyzer E5071C matches with the theoretical results obtained by simulating the antenna design in CST MWS 2010.

Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-209
   21 Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images by Reserving Room Before Encryption
T.Thirumalesh, K.Penchalaiah

Abstract

Recently, more and more attention is paid to reversible data hiding (RDH) in encrypted images, since it maintains the excellent property that the original cover can be loss lessly recovered after embedded data is extracted while protecting the image content’s confidentiality. All previous methods embed data by reversibly vacating room from the encrypted images, which may be subject to some errors on data extraction and/or image restoration. In this paper, we propose a novel method by reserving room before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, and thus it is easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted image. The proposed method can achieve real reversibility, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free
of any error. Experiments show that this novel method can embed more than 10 times as large payloads for the same image quality as the previous methods,such as for PSNR 40dB.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-210
   22 Automatic Car Detection using Modified Fuzzy Clustering
TDrishya G.S, Monisha Menon

Abstract

This paper presents an automatic car detection using modified fuzzy clustering. Change detection is a process that analyses several images to identify the changes occurred between them. Ratio Operator is used to obtain the difference image. Fuzzy Possibilistic C Means algorithm is done for classifying changed and unchanged regions in the difference image. This method gives good clustering result than conventional clustering techniques. High accuracy and low computation time are the main advantages of this technique.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-211
   23 Reducing Area and Increasing Speed Using Vedic Multiplier With Compressors
S.Uma Maheswara Rao, C.Leela Mohan

Abstract

With the advent of new technology in the fields of VLSI and communication, there is also an ever growing demand for high speed processing and low area design. It is also a well known fact that the multiplier unit forms an integral part of processor design. Due to this regard, high speed multiplier architectures become the need of the day. In this paper, we introduce a novel architecture to perform high speed multiplication using ancient Vedic maths techniques. A new high speed approach utilizing 4:2 compressors and novel 7:2 compressors for addition has also been incorporated in the same and has been explored. Upon comparison, the compressor based multiplier introduced in this paper, is almost two times faster than the popular methods of
multiplication. With regards to area, a 1% reduction is seen. The design and experiments were carried out on a Xilinx Spartan 3e series of FPGA and the timing and area of the design, on the same have been calculated.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-212
   24 A Robust Face Recognition Method Based on Thermal Imaging via Sparse Classifier
Helda Ray Sam, Rosmin Samson

Abstract

Thermal face recognition became an active research direction in human identification because it does not rely on illumination condition. In this paper, a new technique for face recognition that exploits the local statistical characteristics of a thermal image is presented. The proposed system is integrated with feature extraction using the Gabor wavelet and uses an integrated approach that consolidates unique algorithms at extracting thermal imaging features, producing templates that rely on the most consistent features. Sparse classifier is used for classification purpose. The novel approach at developing a thermal signature template using four images taken at various instants of time ensured that unforeseen changes in the vasculature over time did not affect
the biometric matching process as the authentication process relied only on consistent thermal features. The features obtained were easier for estimating the rotations, have less computational burden and have the potential to achieve higher correct recognition
rates.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-213
   25 Design of a Digital Transmission System Using PSK for the Transmission and Reception of Text Messages Using LABVIEW
N.Suresh, K.M.Sanjay, M.Nageswar, B.Vijaya Krishna Rajesh,
G.Venkata Govardhan, M.Srikanth Varma

Abstract

Phase-Shift Keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme in which data is expressed by modulating the carrier signal phase. It uses limited number of phases and each represents particular pattern of binary data. Each bit pattern forms symbol that is represented by unique phase. The demodulator designed for symbol set used by modulator determines the phase of extracted signal and maps to symbol thus recovering original data. This is a coherent receiver. In this paper text messages are transmitted after modulating and demodulated and extracted original data using labview..
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-214
   26 Design and Development of Solar Powered and Cell Phone Operated Mobile Robot for Border Surveillance
Tarunpreet Kaur, Dilip Kumar

Abstract

This paper presents a new approach for surveillance at remote areas using an autonomous robot. Like home, factories, offices surveillance at border areas is also indispensable to human beings. This proposed system presents a multisensory robot which is used to detect alive human, bombs, harmful gases and fire in
the Warfield. This system also enhances the use of renewable resource of energy by using Solar Panel as a main power source. The robot is equipped with camera which is used to send visual information back to user laptop or pc wirelessly in both automatic and manual mode. In both automatic and manual mode the user will get alert messages on its cell phone when any sensor becomes active. In automatic mode the proposed system uses ultrasonic sensor to detect and avoid obstacle in the path and in Manual mode robot is controlled by pressing key from touchpad of user’s cell phone which is detected by DTMF Decoder through which robot can be move in desired direction. User will change the path of robot according to the real time visual information of surrounding provided by the camera equipped on robot. In both modes, user will be able to hear the talk of human at border areas with help of inbuilt microphone in camera.
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-215
   27 Oscillating Magnetoresistance With Low Temperature in Cdse Nanostructure
Priyadarshi Chakraborty, Arindam Biswas, Aniruddha Ghosal

Abstract

Magnetoresistance of the two-dimensional holes in CdSe quantum well wire are calculated in the temperature range of 1K–16K incorporating deformation potential acoustic, piezoelectric, and background and remote ionized impurity scatterings by the iterative solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The oscillatory nature of the magnetoresistance coefficient variation with the temperature points towards the magnetophonon oscillations
Full Paper

IJECT/53/1/A-216