Vol 5.2-1 Apr-Jun2014



International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology Vol. 5 Issue 2, Ver. 1
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
   1 Noise Analysis In Short Channel AlGaN/AlN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT)
Kaushik Mazumdar, Vishwanath Pratap Singh, Aniruddha Ghosal

The noise analysis is very critical issue in noise amplifiers operating in microwave frequency. For electronic applications, GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) provide better noise performance at microwave frequency range in comparison to other solid state devices, that is why the noise effect has been studied in AlGaN/AlN/GaN High electron mobility transistor (HEMT). It has been found that minimum noise figure of AlGaN/AlN/GaN can be modeled by channel length and AlGaN layer thickness. The minimum noise figure for short channel devices can be achieved upto approximately 1.21dB for 0.25μm channel
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   2 Modelling of Cool Water Outfall from Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plant into Sea
Shivangi Nigam, B. Padma S Rao, A. Srivastava

The numerical modeling for the cool water outfall discharge from the LNG Plant is undertaken using CORMIX to evaluate the design of diffuser for discharge. The hydrodynamic data tide and currents are used inputs to the model. It is calibrated using monitored data. The software has been run to calculate the mixing zone and dilution patterns for various flow conditions. Model result shows that ambient condition is achieved within 64 m from the proposed outfall locations. From the results of the modeling studies it concludes that the proposed diffuser design and outfall locations are suitable for all tide conditions. It also shows that significant consequences on the marine life attributable to the proposed cool water discharge, beyond the small area around the discharge location as the parameters are attaining near ambient water quality within the acceptable space and time.
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   3 Performance Improvement Using Generalized Space-Time Diversity Scheme for Different Wireless Communication Channels
Ankit D. Pandya, Nilesh B. Kalani, Dr. G.R.Kulkarni

Diversity Techniques are used to improve the error performance of MIMO communication systems. This paper presents the generalized space time diversity technique with 2xM diversity order for various wireless communication channels. Its error performance analysis is done with the help of potation of BER
vs. SNR graph for various modulation schemes such as M-PSK and M-QAM.
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   4 Minimum PED Based K Best Algorithm Using Wavelet Modulation For High Performance MIMO Detector
Balakrishnan C, Poornima R

Minimum Partial Euclidean Distance (PED) based K-best algorithm using wavelet modulation is proposed. It is based on breath- first search methods. The proposed design is independent of the constellation size, number of transmit and receive antenna. The minimum PED based K-best detector guarantees a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)-independent fixed throughput with a performance close to Maximum Likelihood Detection (MLD) method and constant Bit Error Rate (BER) with irrespective of constellations. The main innovations are the nodes are expanded and visited based on minimum PED rather than exhaustively, as well as it
keep track of finally selecting the best candidates at each search phase. Being fixed-throughput in nature along with the fact that the breadth-first approaches are feed-forward detection schemes makes them especially attractive one for VLSI implementation. At first, the minimum PED based K-best algorithm is implemented using MATLAB and the number of transmit and receive antenna is 2 and 64 constellations is chosen. The input message signal is Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) modulated, and then the output complex domain is converted to wavelet signals. The packets are made suitable according to the MIMO system. Then the signal is transmitted using Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. Then the received signal from MIMO transmitter is detected using the minimum PED based K-best algorithm, Moreover, the algorithm efficiently expands a very small fraction of all possible children based on minimum PED
and can be applied to the infinite lattices. Finally it provides the exact best node solution, i.e., the minimum PED node from transmission in Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system. Finally the scatter plot is compared in MATLAB simulation for both Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Wavelet Packet Transform
(WPT) the scatter plot denotes which one provides the better signal strength. The calculation for wavelet based SNR vs. BER shows the AWGN channel using WPT provides the less amount of bit error involved in signal compared to Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based scheme.
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   5 Low-Power Digital Signal Processor Architecture For Wireless Sensor Nodes
Ch.Mounik Reddy, K.Ferents Koni Jiavana

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications range from medical monitoring to environmental sensing, industrial inspection, and military surveillance. WSN nodes essentially consist of sensors, a radio, and a microcontroller combined with a limited power supply, e.g., battery or energy scavenging. The energy consumption radio transmission depends on Data-driven nature of WSN. Currently, they are designed around off-the-shelf lowpower microcontrollers. But by employing a more appropriate processing element, the energy consumption can be significantly reduced. This paper describes the design and implementation of the newly proposed folded-tree architecture for on-the-node data processing in wireless sensor networks, using parallel prefix operations and data locality in hardware. Folded tree concept require less number of processing element. So system speed can be increased and the power consumption can be reduced.
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   6 Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network For Arrhythmia Classification
V.S.R.Kumari, P.Rajesh Kumar

Cardiac arrhythmia indicates the susceptibility of serious heart disease, and stroke. Early diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia helps administering aid to the patients avoiding cardiac complications. An Electrocardiogram (ECG) helps in identifying cardiac arrhythmia. Automated arrhythmia detection was developed in the past few decades to attempt simplify the monitoring task and improve diagnostic efficiencies. ECG arrhythmia detection accuracy improves with the use of machine learning and data mining methods. Several algorithms were developed for the detection and classification of the ECG signals. This study proposes Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) optimization using Genetic Algorithm (GA) to classify ECG arrhythmia. Symlet is
used to extracts RR intervals from ECG data as features while symmetric uncertainty assures feature reduction. GA optimizes learning rate and momentum. Simulated Annealing (SA) is applied to refine the population of GA.
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   7 Review Paper on Rectangular Patch Array Antenna for Wimax Application
Jodh Singh, Manpreet Singh

This paper presents a review on Rectangular Patch array antenna with center frequency 2.4 GHz for Wimax application. The antenna array with four square patch element fabricated on FR4
substrate. The FR4 substrate is with air gap to ground plane. By adjusting the thickness of FR4 substrate and geometry of the antenna array the maximum gain of the antenna can be obtained.
The required bandwidth for wimax technologies are 4.8 % 3% and 2.5 % respectivelyFull Paper

   8 A Novel Approach to Enhance the Energy Performance of WSN Nodes Using ACO and Beacon Frames
Surya Pal, Munish Bhardwaj, Arti Verma

Wireless Sensor Networks consists of large number of sensor nodes. The sensor nodes are battery powered devices, they communicate over a wireless medium and consumes energy during
data transmission. The main task in WSN is to reduce power consumption of sensor nodes. It is possible by using caching the data to minimize power consumption in WSN. This paper for
caching presents global cluster cooperation scheme for wireless sensor networks Caching can reduce overall network traffic and energy consumption in WSN. In this paper sink node stores the
location of cache node and direct link is established between sink and cache node. Hence, it improves the lifetime of wireless sensor node’s batteries.
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   9 Extraction of Stone In-scripted Kannada Characters Using Sift Algorithm Based Image Mosaic
Dr. H.S. Mohana, Rajithkumar B K, Dr. B. R. Sujatha, Bhavana M B

Stone in-scripted literature is one of the important historical document need to be preserved using modern techniques. Kannada script recognition differs from other language scripts
in few significant ways, as not every artefact can be re-document because it is stolen or lost over time, so we have to process existing documentation. Here in the present work, the images of stone inscripted are captured from ordinary digital camera and images are pre-processed to remove noise. In this paper, we proposed a new image Mosaic technology based on simple, which can solve massive calculation and long processing time produced by SIFT. The first step from this method is that 32vectors, from the feature points, reduce to 16 vectors and the feature points with 16 vectors construct a pot set, which is the space transformation matrix. The space transformation is the mapping of two images. The processed image is edge processed to eliminate image edge ambiguity and the right results is also rests on cluster. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective when compared with existing techniques. The result is
tested and found reliable in stitching a large image and processing time is less when compare to previous methods.
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   10 Design and study of ‘U’ Shaped Dual Operating Frequency Microstrip Patch Antenna for Broadband Communication
D. Banerjee, K. Mondal

This article deals about the microstrip monopole antenna. In this work a ‘U’ shaped microstrip patch antenna is designed for wireless communications. The proposed antenna consist slit on the ground plane to enhance the bandwidth and stable swept gain. This proposed design of the antenna covers the frequency range of 4.62 GHz to 10.02 GHz with 5.62 GHz bandwidth. The two resonating frequency at 4.9 GHz and 8.9 GHz is obtained. The design has been simulated to get the results such as return loss, swept gain, radiation pattern, bandwidth and VSWR using the Ansoft Designer software which works on the Method of Moments.
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   11 ISI Reduction using Adaptive Equalization for Wireless Communication System: A Review
Ankit Aggarwal, Baljit Kaur, Kamlesh Yadav

Wireless Communication is one of the tremendous achievements in communication and in recent years, it has gained growing attention, because of the promising multicarrier technologies and modulation techniques. However, the various phenomena such as multipath wave propagation, time dispersion, and fading causes errors like Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), and other distortions into the signals transmitted over wireless channel and affect the quality of communications. For this purpose, equalization process is normally used, which is used to overcome Inter symbol Interference (ISI). This paper reviews various equalization techniques in order to compensate for the average range of expected channel amplitude and delay characteristics. In particularly, this paper reviews the adaptive equalization, which is basically used where the channel is generally unknown and if it is measured, it is time varying like for mobile communication. For a channel of unknown impulse response, the purpose of an adaptive equalizer is to operate on the channel output and equalizer provides an approximation to an ideal
transmission medium. The adaptive equalizers discussed in this paper require an initial training period, during which a known data sequence is transmitted. A replica of this sequence is made available at the receiver in proper synchronism with the transmitter, thereby making it possible for adjustments to be made to the equalizer coefficients in accordance with the adaptive filtering algorithms (LMS & RLS) employed in the equalizer design. The results show significant improvement in error-performance of digital data transmission. There is also another type of equalization known as “blind equalization” which use some property of a signal like constant envelope or constant amplitude and guess the distortion putting up by the channel and undo those effects. It doesn’t need training sequence unlike adaptive equalization.
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   12 Implementation of Modulo 2n+1 Adder and Multiplier
G H Asha, Uday J

Efficient modulo 2n+1 adder and multiplier are important for several applications including residue number system, digital signal processors and cryptography algorithms. Modular addition
and multiplication plays an important role in data encryption standard. In this paper a new VLSI circuit architectures for addition and multiplication of modulo 2n+1 are presented, which allows the implementation of highly efficient combinational circuits for modular arithmetic. The architecture for adder and multipliers are based on Diminished-1 with an Inverted End-Around-Carry (IEAC) using inverted circular Idempotency property and Sparse carry computation tree. To realize fast end-around-carry adder we use parallel-prefix adder with a new prefix operator known as gray-operator. The architectures are implemented on Xilinx Spartan III Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using ISE 14.3. The results indicate that, on an average, the implemented architectures are better in terms of delay, area and memory utilization.
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   13 Compact Circular Broadband Microstrip Patch Antenna With Modified Ground Plane
K. Mondal, Dr. D.Chanda, Dr. Partha Pratim Sarkar, Dr. P.K Roy

In this work a compact circular broadband microstrip patch antenna is designed for wireless communications.The proposed design consists of a radiating patch with circular shape and the
modified ground plane with circular slits. A wideband from 3.36 to 7.04 GHz is obtained. A circular slit is incorporated on the circular radiating patch to enhance the bandwidth. The maximum simulated gain of 3.1dBi and percentage of bandwidth 71% with resonance frequency at 6.42 GHz is achieved by the proposed antenna. The antenna has been simulated using ansoft HFSS designer softwere. The proposed antenna exhibits a omnidirectional radiation pattern in the H-plane, and E-plane radiation pattern.
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   14 Evaluating the Effect of Attack on MANET Routing Protocols using Intrusion Detection System
S Muzamil Basha, G N. Vivekananda, G B Hima Bindu, K Aravind

In the last decade, Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) have become known as a major next generation wireless Networking technology. MANET is an autonomous system of wireless mobile hosts without fixed network infrastructure and centralized access point. Each mobile device must forward traffic discrete for its own use, and therefore be a router. One of the major advantages
of wireless networks is its ability to allow data communication between different parties and still preserve their mobility. MANET is one of the most promising technologies that have applications ranging from health care to strategic military. Even though a wireless sensor network has a lot of innovative features it has a huge concern towards security. MANETs are more vulnerable to security attacks. The security of such networks is a big apprehension, especially for the applications where confidentiality has leading significance. An intrusion detection system (IDS) monitors network traffic and monitors for mistrustful activity and alerts the system or network administrator and taking action, such as blocking the user or source IP address from accessing the network. In this paper, we analyze the performance of DSDV (Proactive) and AODV (Reactive) both with and without malicious node in network with respect to IDS by varying number of nodes in the network. Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and Packet Drop Rate (PDRR) are measured as a performance parameter for estimating the performance of DSDV, AODV protocols in the Ad-hoc network using the NS2 simulator. Finally, we identify areas where advance
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   15 An Implementation of MEMS Based Embedded Device to Identify Numercal Strings
Prasanna Lakshmi Akella, N S Murthy Sarma, T. Siva Sankar Phani, A.Pravin

MEMS based embedded device to capture handwritings using ARM9 board S3C2440 is proposed in this paper. A trajectory recognition algorithm is developed to identify individual gestures
in sequence. The gesture is recognized by comparing the gesture code with the stored prototypes.
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   16 Bonding and Anti-bonding on PCF
Manoj K Pradhan, Tusar Kanti Dash

Surface Plasmon in nanoscaled materials have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to its possibility in a wide range of application. With two adjacent gold nanowires i.e., nanowire pair behaves like a “diatomic molecule”, supporting hybridized bonding and anti-bonding super-modes.
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   17 To Reduce the Energy Performance of Clusters in Wireless Sensor Network Using Adaptive Techniques and DRI Tables
Arti Verma, Munish Bhardwaj, Surya Pal

The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an infrastructure less network which is self configuring. it means any sensor node can join or leave the network at any time. Energy consumption is a
major issue in fields of wireless sensor network because it’s very difficult to exchange the battery of sensor node again and again so many researchers focused to increase the lifetime of wireless sensor network. Our main focus is to save the battery life. In this paper, we are proposing a new technique to save the battery life through dynamic clustering approach. The nodes in the sensor network can arrange themselves in the clusters dynamically using neural network. The neural network is the type of network which will learn from the past experiences and respond according to the situation. In our technique when any node wants to transmit data to the other node secure and reliable route will be established between the sender and receiver. The intermediate nodes will arrange them themselves into a clusters in such a way that minimum energy will consumed while routing the data from sender to the receiver.
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   18 Error Performance Analysis for Combined System of Transmit Antenna Selection, Beamforming & ALAMOUTI’s STBC for Various Fading Channels
Maharshi N. Rindani, Nishchal M. Rindani

The abstract is to be in fully-justified italicized text as it is here, below the We consider a MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) System consisting of MT transmitting antennas and N fixed numbers of receiving antennas with different types of fading channels. Here, We consider a optimum transmitter antenna selection technique in which out of MT transmitting antennas, two transmitting antennas are selected based on CSI feedback from the receiver side to the to improve diversity gain as well as coding gain with the help of improvement in SINR (Signal to interference noise ratio), this combined scheme is extended with simple Eigen- beamforming technique. In this paper, we developed the error performances of this combined technique in the form of BER vs. SNR graphs for various fading channels.
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   19 Traffic Classification for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks a Survey
Himanshu, Ritu Chhabra

Mobile ad hoc networks are networks with routing based on multi -hop routing from a source to a destination node or nodes. Adhocnetworks have lot of constrains as uncertainty of radio
interface and its limitations in the available bandwidth. Precise Network traffic classification is of absolute importance especially in mobile ad hoc networks for various activities, including security monitoring, accounting, QoS and forecasting. This paper provides a work in progress of classification strategies in MANETs.
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   20 Modelling of Variable Speed Wind Turbines With Pitch Control Using Matlab/Simulink
Namrata Shrivastava, Abhay Kumar Sharma

Wind energy is a viable option to complement other types of pollution-free generation this paper describes the modeling of the various components in a pitch controlled wind energy system and the design of the pitch controller, and discusses the response of the pitch-controlled system to wind velocity variations. The investigated pitch control system was observed to have a large output power variation and settling time. The pitch function provides full control over the mechanical power and is the most common control technique used in variable speed wind turbines. At wind speeds below the rated power of the generator, the pitch angle is at its maximum; however, it can be lowered to help the wind turbine (WT) accelerate faster. At the rated wind speed, the pitch angle is controlled to keep the generator at the rated power by reducing the angleof the blades. This paper develops dynamic models in MATLAB/SIMULINK, investigates the behaviour of the pitch controller during the variable speed of the Wind condition, and proposes new control in small wind turbine generators. The system we considered is controlled to generate maximum energy while minimizing loads. Our analysis and simulation shows that the wind turbine can be operated at its optimum energy capture while minimizing the load on the wind turbine for a wide range of wind speeds.
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   21 A Modified LLC Converter With Two Transformers
Dr. B.Gavaskar Reddy, P.Rajya Lakshmi, D.Shekshavali, M.Lakshmi Narayana

A modified LLC converter with two transformers has four configurations to cover the range of four times of the minimum input voltage. When transformers are used in the circuit since it has core and conduction losses it will reduce the overall efficiency of the system. In order to minimize the magnetizing current and thus minimize the conduction and core losses an optimal objective is proposed to find the maximum magnetizing inductance. Two conventional llc converters are designed using Fundamental Approximation (FHA) and the proposed optimal design respectively to make comparison with the proposed LLC converter and the proposed optimal design. Two transformers are used to increase the input voltage range and to reduce the magnetizing current and thereby the overall losses in the proposed converter will reduce. The experimental result shows the proposed converter with proposed optimal design can achieve the peak
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   22 A Comparative Analysis Framework of Median Filter and Extended Kalman Smoothing Parameters for ECG Denoising System
Nagendra Sen, Chinmay Chandrakar, Dr. Monisha Sharma

A modified LLC converter with two transformers has four configurations to cover the range of four times of the minimum input voltage. When transformers are used in the circuit since it has core and conduction losses it will reduce the overall efficiency of the system. In order to minimize the magnetizing current and thus minimize the conduction and core losses an optimal objective is proposed to find the maximum magnetizing inductance. Two conventional llc converters are designed using Fundamental Approximation (FHA) and the proposed optimal design respectively to make comparison with the proposed LLC converter and the proposed optimal design. Two transformers are used to increase the input voltage range and to reduce the magnetizing current and thereby the overall losses in the proposed converter will reduce. The experimental result shows the proposed converter with proposed optimal design can achieve the peak
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   23 Electronic Voice Notice Board
N.Chitra, 2J.Nagarjuna, D.Chakradhar Rao, Y.Kishore Kumar, V.Dinesh

Notice Boards are common occurrence in variety of institutions for intimation. There is a long process involved in order to put up notices in notice board with lot of resources like paper, printer ,man power which results in time laps. In order to have faster intimation that reduces the above requirements, we have proposed a smart way of data transmission through “Electronic Voice Notice Board”. This provides us the speed data transmission rate and in addition with the voice output form for the data that has been transmitted. In this model we have provided the voice module which helps us to get the voice form of data transmitted simultaneously along with the data scrolled on the display which could be either LCD or LED based on the application part.
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   24 Performance Enhancement of a FSO-based Hybrid SAC-OCDMA System Using Zero Cross Correlation Code
Samandeep Singh, Davinder Singh, Bhawna Utreja

A hybrid Subcarrier Multiplexed-Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access system (SCM-SACOCDMA) based on the Free Space Optics (FSO) using Zero-Cross Correlation (ZCC) codes is investigated. The proposed hybrid system is analyzed under clear, hazy and foggy weather conditions. This system has been evaluated theoretically and experimentally using Optisystem version 7.0. Overall system performance is improved to suppress a number of impairments and sensitivity is also improved at a bit error rate of 10—9.
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   25 A Simple Iris Detection Algorithm Based on the Cross Correlation and Feature Transform Matching Method
Navya.K, Dr. H.S.Mohana, Nagesh.C, Chaithra Chandrashekar

Iris in the eyes is the most important identification feature in the human body. Hence extraction or detection of iris is often considered as the most important step in many applications, such as forensic applications and Biometric-Key Cryptography. This paper provides a noble method of iris detection as a method of biometric identification. In this work it is proposed to use feature transform matching techniques and cross correlation of images on different images of individual’s iris. This provides complex random patterns which are unique and can be seen from some distance. Iris detection uses camera technology with good illumination to acquire images of the detail-rich, intricate structures from the digitized images of eyes. The proposed method is simple and fast since it needs no steps for learning and training and also it don’t requires the artificial neural networks for verification. Digital templates encoded from these patterns by mathematical and statistical algorithms allow the identification of an individual or someone pretending to be that individual. The method is simple since it needs no training examples of iris and easy to implement with cost effectiveness.
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   26 Implementation of Highly Effective Data Retention in Variable Threshold Circuits
Anoop.G, N .Angayarkanni, Dr. G.K.D Prasanna Venkatesan

Variable threshold is commonly used for suppressing leakage currents in idle integrated circuits. Power and ground distribution network noise produced during SLEEP to ACTIVE mode transitions and data preservation during sleep mode are important reliability concerns in VT circuits. Sleep signal slew rate modulation techniques for reducing mode- transition noise along with data retention technology is introduced in this paper. A triple-phase sleep signal slew rate modulation technique with a novel digital sleep signal generator with data retention mechanism utilising the same sleep signal is proposed. When the conventional VT technique is directly applied to a sequential circuit however the stored data is lost during the low-leakage sleep mode. Significant energy and timing penalties are suffered to restore the pre-sleep system state at the end of the sleep mode with the conventional VT circuits. A new master-slave MTCMOS memory flip-flop is also presented in this paper for providing a low-complexity and low-leakage data retention sleep mode Keywords— VT, Digital sleep signal slew rate modulator, lownoise, mode transition energy, power and ground bouncing noise, process variations, reactivation time, sleep signal rise delay,triple-phase wake-up.
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