IJECT 7 .1 (ACSECT 2016)



International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology VOL 7.1, Jan – Mar 2016 (ACSECT 2016)
S.No. Research Topic Paper ID
01 Analysis of Delay in Feedback Power Control for CDMA Systems
L. P. Mishra, Mihir N. Mohanty

Transmit diversity techniques have received a lot of attention recently in the area of wireless communication. Closed–loop transmit diversity techniques can provide full diversity and increase the received SNR without space–time coding. The goal of this work is to implement a fast power control algorithm and to evaluate the effect of feedback delay on its performance in CDMA systems. This paper evaluates the effect of delay in feedback power control algorithms on the uplink of code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. The performance of fixed-step and variable-step power algorithms are analyzed for CDMA systems. The control mechanism is closed loop one in which the algorithms are based on the feedback information of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) measurement at the base station. In ideal conditions, variable-step algorithm outperforms fixed-step algorithm to reduce the effect of Rayleigh fading. It can also track the fading channel accurately by proportionally increasing the power control bit. The algorithm measured uses the measured SIR at every feedback delay and compares it to a given target and adjust the measured SIR to match the target SIR. The performance of the system is evaluated in terms of BER as a function of SIR (Eb/ Io).
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02 Proposed Algorithm for Implementation of Shannon Energy Envelope for Heart Sound Analysis
Mehak Saini

In a complete cardiac cycle, the first and the second heart sounds are dominating sounds out of four high amplitude sounds. This proposed algorithm is an automatic detection of two dominating heart sounds based on 3-order normalized average Shannon energy envelope. By computation of Shannon energy envelope of heart sound signal, most of the low level murmurs and background noises get suppressed, leading to excellent detection of first and second heart sound. The performance of algorithm have been evaluated for 55 recordings (from different subjects and at all four auscultations areas) each of 2 minutes, out of which 2520 cycles were selected for analysis. Out of 2520 cycles, the 2409 cycles were correctly detected. This proposed algorithm found 95.6 % correct ratio.
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03 Management Components and Tools For Distributed Control Systems
Sanjat Kumar Mishra, Sarojini Sethi, Mihir Narayan Mohanty

The use of computer assisted software tools are gaining momentum in the recent years. In this era, where software tools and systems dominate many aspects of the design process, automation and control domain has no longer been an exception. These papers considers application level software tool for automated systems. The work define a systematic approach to specification, methodology, and prototype design of an application tool that is capable of providing services to the proposed management layer (ML)functionally for DCS(Distributed Control Systems) design applications. The tool is designed based on a layered model, which would make it easy to extend the existing DCS systems by accommodating future modifications. The developed platform is modular and flexible which utilises the benefit of object oriented and client server approach respectively. The utility of the developed platform is demonstrated through an experimental study.
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04 Comparative Analysis of PCA, 2DPCA and 2D2PCA on Iris
Navdeep Dhiman, Monica Sharma, Tulika Mehta

The growing demand for security as the basis for authentication has put the intelligent personal identification biometric systems in top priority. Iris recognition system works on the concept of automatic differentiation of an individual based on the information obtained from their iris images. This technique is extremely beneficial in identifying an individual in the course of accessing a system for authenticity owing to its high precision and reliability. In this paper, a comparative analysis of the recognition scheme is presented based on the three different techniques: PCA, 2DPCA and 2D2PCA on iris biometric trait. In the beginning of the recognition process the iris image is preprocessed. Then these three techniques are applied on the preprocessed images independently to extract the features. Then, the extracted features are placed in the database. The test sample is then matched with the one which is stored in the database. The results are evaluated on the basis of recognition rate and the number of input samples provided to the system. From the experimental outcomes, it is observed that 2D2PCA out performs PCA and 2DPCA techniques when implemented in iris recognition.
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05 Design of Microstrip Antenna With Notch Filter for UWB Application
T. Venkateswara Rao, A. Sudhakar, K. Padma Raju

UWB antennas are also necessary for the rejection of an interference with existing wireless networking technologies. This is due to the fact that UWB transmitters should not cause any electromagnetic interference on nearby communication system such as wireless local area network (WLAN) applications. Two types of UWB antennas with band-notched studied and designed. Initially, a square notch on the top of the ground provides the mechanism to enhance the impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna. The proposed filter structure uses a single patch without coupling gaps. This filter has two transmission zeros on both sides of the passband. The effect on the filter’s performance by changing filter parameters is studied. The results show that this new filter can provide a low insertion loss and reduce uncertainty in fabrication. It also makes miniaturization easy. Next to it, a novel microstrip antenna with a frequency band-filter characteristic for UWB applications is proposed and investigated. Having a triangle-shaped slot on the patch, a frequency-notched characteristics is obtained. The proposed slot topology, when used for antenna design, demonstrates a much less ohmic loss, and thus, higher efficiency than standard microstrip structures. The designed antenna satisfies the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) requirement of less than 2.0 in the frequency band between 4.2 and 6 GHz while showing the band rejection performance in the frequency band from 2 to 12 GHz. This technique is suitable for creating ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with narrow frequency notched characteristics.
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06 Analysis of GPS Single Point Positioning and Software Development
Pragyan Paramita Das, Dr. Shinichi Nakamura

When it comes to GPS positioning we all have an overview of how it works. Various soft wares commercial or free are also provided to perform positioning with accurate results, for example RTKLIB. Have we ever wondered how the parameters like elevation mask angle and ionospheric error on and off conditions are affecting the GPS positioning. Text books generally emphasize to the basic theory of understanding the process but not how these parameters are affecting the positioning results. This paper aims to make the first attempt to show the clear picture of the performance enhance of GPS Positioning on proper knowledge of input parameters. A case of static positioning of a receiver has been shown in this paper. A simple effort has been done to make users aware of RINEX observation and Navigation file structure. The algorithm and code was developed and tested under MATLAB environment. The statistical results are quite interesting and plotted effectively to show the dramatic influence of parameters affecting positioning result. This paper aims to make users understand the behavior of Positioning in best simple way and to bring out the ideal condition to achieve the effective results for GPS Positioning.
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